Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Shiva Mahimna Stothram

The Shiva Mahimna Stotra is very popular among the devotees of Lord Shiva and is considered one of the best Stotras (or Stutis) offered to Lord Shiva. The legend about the circumstances leading to the composition of this Stotras is as follows.

A king named Chitraratha had constructed a nice garden. There were beautiful flowers in this garden. These flowers were used every day by the king in worshipping Lord Shiva. 
One day a Gandharva (Singer in the court of Indra, the Lord of the Heaven)named Pushhpadanta being fascinated by the beautiful flowers, began to steal them, as a consequence of which king Chitraratha could not offer flowers to Lord Shiva. He tried very hard to capture the thief, but in vain, because the Gandharvas have divine power to remain invisible. Finally the king spread the Shiva Nirmaalya in his garden. Shiva Nirmaalya consists of the Bilva leaves, flowers, et cetera which have been used in worshipping Lord Shiva. The Shiva Nirmaalya is considered holy.

The thief Pushhpadanta, not knowing this, walked on the Shiva Nirmaalya, and by that he incurred the wrath of Lord Shiva and lost the divine power of invisibility. He then designed a prayer to Lord Shiva for forgiveness. In this prayer he sung the greatness of the Lord. This very prayer became well known as the `Shiva Mahimna Stotra'.

Lord Shiva became pleased by this StotraM, and returned Pushhpadanta's divine powers. The legend has some basis since the name of the author is mentioned in verse number 38 of the stotraM. The recital of this stotra is very beneficial, and Shri Ramakrishna, one of the famous saints of the nineteenth century, went into samadhi just by reciting a few verses from this hymn.

Let its recitation be beneficial to you as well!



Click on the below 'Play' button to LISTEN "Sri Shiva Mahimna Sthotram"


mahimnaḥ pāraṃ te paramaviduṣo yady asadṛśī
stutir brahmādīnām api tadavasannās tvayi giraḥ
athāvācyaḥ sarvaḥ svamatipariṇāmāvadhi gṛṇan
mamāpy eṣa stotre hara nirapavādaḥ parikaraḥ Smst_1

If the praise of Thee by one who is ignorant of the extent of Thy greatness be unbecoming, then the praises of even Brahmā and others are inadequate for Thee. And if all remain unblamable by praising Thee according to their intellectual powers, then even this attempt on my part to compose a hymn is free from any blemish. 1

atītaḥ panthānaṃ tava ca mahimā vāṅmanasayor
atadvyāvṛttyā yaṃ cakitam abhidhatte śrutir api
sa kasya stotavyaḥ katividhaguṇaḥ kasya viṣayaḥ
pade tv arvācīne patati na manaḥ kasya na vacaḥ Smst_2

Thy greatness is beyond the reach of mind and speech. Who will praise That which even the Vedas describe with trepidation by the method of 'not this, not this'? – How many qualities does That possess? And can be perceived by whom? Yet to the form taken later, whose mind and speech do not turn? 2

madhusphītā vācaḥ paramam amṛtaṃ nirmitavatas
tava brahman kiṃ vāg api suraguror vismayapadam
mama tv etāṃ vāṇīṃ guṇakathanapuṇyena bhavataḥ
punāmīty arthe 'smin puramathana buddhir vyavasitā Smst_3

O Brahman! Does the praise of even Brihaspati cause any wonderment to Thee who art the Author of the nectar like sweet Vedas? O Destroyer of Tripura, the thought that by praising Thy glories I shall purify my speech has prompted me to undertake this work. 3

tavaiśvaryaṃ yat taj jagadudayarakṣāpralayakṛt
trayīvastu vyastaṃ tisṛṣu guṇabhinnāsu tanuṣu
abhavyānām asmin varada ramaṇīyām aramaṇīṃ
vihantuṃ vyākrośīṃ vidadhata ihaike jaḍadhiyaḥ Smst_4

O Giver of boons, in refutation of Thy Divinity which is described by the three Vedas, which creates, preserves and destroys the world, and which is divided into three bodies according to the different qualities, some thick headed persons offer arguments, which are pleasing to the ignorant but in reality hateful. 4

kimīhaḥ kiṃkāyaḥ sa khalu kimupāyas tribhuvanaṃ
kimādhāro dhātā sṛjati kimupādāna iti ca
atarkyaiśvarye tvayy anavasaraduḥstho hatadhiyaḥ
kutarko 'yaṃ kāṃścin mukharayati mohāya jagataḥ Smst_5

To fulfill what desire, having what body with what instruments, support, and materials does that Creator indeed create the three worlds? This kind of vain argument with regard to Thee, whose Divine nature is beyond vociferous, is to the delusion of mankind. 5

ajanmāno lokāḥ kim avayavavanto 'pi jagatām
adhiṣṭhātāraṃ kiṃ bhavavidhir anādṛtya bhavati
anīśo vā kuryād bhuvanajanane kaḥ parikaro
yato mandās tvāṃ praty amaravara saṃśerata ime Smst_6

O Lord of Gods, can the worlds be without origin though they have parts? Is creation of the worlds possible without a Creator? Who else but God can begin the creation of the worlds? Because they are fools, they raise doubts as regards Thy existence. 6

trayī sāṃkhyaṃ yogaḥ paśupatimataṃ vaiṣṇavam iti
prabhinne prasthāne param idam adaḥ pathyam iti ca
rucīnāṃ vaicitryād ṛjukuṭilanānāpathajuṣāṃ
nṛṇām eko gamyas tvam asi payasām arṇava iva Smst_7

There are different paths of realization as enjoined by the three Vedas, Sānkhyā, Yoga and Pāśupata doctrine and Vaishnava śāstras . Persons following different paths – straight or crooked according as they consider that this path is best or that one is proper due to the difference in temperaments, reach Thee alone just as rivers enter the ocean. 7

mahokṣaḥ khaṭvāṅgaṃ paraśur ajinaṃ bhasma phaṇinaḥ
kapālaṃ cetīyat tava varada tantropakaraṇam
surās tāṃ tām ṛddhiṃ dadhati tu bhavadbhrūpraṇihitāṃ
na hi svātmārāmaṃ viṣayamṛgatṛṣṇā bhramayati Smst_8

O Giver of boons, a great bull, a wooden club, an axe, a tiger skin, ashes, a human skull and the like - these are Thy sole possessions, though by the mere casting of eyes Thou gave the gods great treasures which they enjoy. Indeed, the mirage of sense – objects cannot delude one whose delight is in the Self. 8

dhruvaṃ kaścit sarvaṃ sakalam aparas tv adhruvam idaṃ
paro dhrauvyādhrauvye jagati gadati vyastaviṣaye
samaste 'py etasmin puramathana tair vismita iva
stuvañ jihremi tvāṃ na khalu nanu dhṛṣṭā mukharatā Smst_9

O Destroyer of Pura some say that the whole universe is eternal, while others say that all is transitory. Yet others maintain that all these are eternal and non-eternal – having different characteristics. Bewildered, as it were by them I do not feel ashamed to praise Thee. Indeed this garrulity indicates my audacity. 9

tavaiśvaryaṃ yatnād yad upari viriñco harir adhaḥ
paricchettuṃ yātāv analam analaskandhavapuṣaḥ
tato bhaktiśraddhābharagurugṛṇadbhyāṃ giriśa yat
svayaṃ tasthe tābhyāṃ tava kim anuvṛttir na phalati Smst_10

O Girīśa, Brahmā trying above and, Vishnu trying below failed to measure Thee who took the form of a Pillar of Fire. Afterwards when they praised Thee with great devotion and faith, Thou revealed Thyself to them of thy own accord, indicating whether Thy worship can go without bearing result. 10

ayatnād āpādya tribhuvanam avairavyatikaraṃ
daśāsyo yad bāhūn abhṛta raṇakaṇḍūparavaśān
śiraḥpadmaśreṇīracitacaraṇāmbhoruhabaleḥ
sthirāyās tvadbhaktes tripurahara visphūrjitam idam Smst_11

O Destroyer of Tripura, that the ten-headed Rāvana, after riding the three worlds of any trace of enemies, remained with arms eager for fresh war is due to the fact of his having great devotion to Thee devotion which prompted him to offer his heads as lotuses to Thy feet. 11

amuṣya tvatsevāsamadhigatasāraṃ bhujavanaṃ
balāt kailāse 'pi tvadadhivasatau vikramayataḥ
alabhyā pātāle 'py alasacalitāṅguṣṭhaśirasi
pratiṣṭhā tvayy āsīd dhruvam upacito muhyati khalaḥ Smst_12

When Rāvana extended the valour of his arms whose strength was obtained by worshipping Thee - to Kailāsa, Thy abode, Thou moved the tip of Thy toe, and he did not get a resting place even in the nether world. Verily, when affluent the wicked becomes deluded. 12

yadṛddhiṃ sutrāmṇo varada paramoccair api satīm
adhaś cakre bāṇaḥ parijanavidheyatribhuvanaḥ
na tac citraṃ tasmin varivasitari tvaccaraṇayor
na kasyā unnatyai bhavati śirasas tvayy avanatiḥ Smst_13

O Giver of boons, that Bāna, who had the three worlds at his command, put to shade the wealth of Indra is not to be wondered at - he being the worshipper of Thy feet. What prosperity does not result from bowing down the head to Thee? 13

akāṇḍabrahmāṇḍakṣayacakitadevāsurakṛpā
vidheyasyāsīd yas trinayana viṣaṃ saṃhṛtavataḥ
na kalmāṣaḥ kaṇṭhe tava na kurute na śriyam aho
vikāro 'pi ślāghyo bhuvananbhayabhaṅgavyasaninaḥ Smst_14

O Three eyed one, it is not that the dark stain on the throat of Thee who drank poison as an act of favor to gods and demons at their being panicky at the threatened destruction of the universe all on a sudden, has not beautified Thee. Even deformity is admirable in one who is given to freeing the worlds of fear. 14

asiddhārthā naiva kvacid api sadevāsuranare
nivartante nityaṃ jagati jayino yasya viśikhāḥ
sa paśyan īśa tvām itarasurasādhāraṇam abhūt
smaraḥ smartavyātmā na hi vaśiṣu pathyaḥ paribhavaḥ Smst_15

O Lord, the God of love whose arrows do not fail anywhere in the world of gods, demons and men but are always successful became simply an object of memory by looking upon Thee as an ordinary god. For an insult to the self controlled does not conduce to good. 15

mahī pādāghātād vrajati sahasā saṃśayapadaṃ
padaṃ viṣṇor bhrāmyadbhujaparigharugṇagrahagaṇam
muhur dyaur dauḥsthyaṃ yāty anibhṛtajaṭātāḍitataṭā
jagadrakṣāyai tvaṃ naṭasi nanu vāmaiva vibhutā Smst_16

In order to save the world when Thou danced, the earth wondered at the striking of Thy feet, whether it would not come to sudden end; so felt the spatial region along with the planets, oppressed by the movement of Thy iron-cube like arms; and the heaven became then miserable - its side being struck by Thy waving matted hair. Ah, Thy very mightiness is the cause of trouble. 16

viyadvyāpī tārāgaṇaguṇitaphenodgamaruciḥ
pravāho vārāṃ yaḥ pṛṣ.atalaghudṛṣṭaḥ śirasi te
jagad dvīpākāraṃ jaladhivalayaṃ tena kṛtam ity
anenaivonneyaṃ dhṛtamahima divyaṃ tava vapuḥ Smst_17

The river which pervades the sky and whose foams look all the more beautiful because of stars and planets, seems no more than a drop of water when on Thy head. That again has turned the world into islands surrounded by waters. And by this should be inferred how vast is Thy divine body. 17

rathaḥ kṣoṇī yantā śatadhṛtir agendro dhanur athor
athāṅge candrārkau rathacaraṇapāṇiḥ śara iti
didhakṣos te ko 'yaṃ tripuratṛṇam āḍambaravidhir
vidheyaiḥ krīḍantyo na khalu paratantrāḥ prabhudhiyaḥ Smst_18

When Thou wanted to burn the three cities which were but a piece of straw, the earth was Thy chariot, Brahmā Thy charioteer, the great mountain Meru Thy bow, the sun and the moon the wheels of Thy chariot, Vishnu Thy arrow why this paraphernalia? The Lord is not dependent on others - He was playing with things at his command. 18

haris te sāhasraṃ kamalabalim ādhāya padayor
yad ekone tasmin nijam udaharan netrakamalam
gato bhaktyudrekaḥ pariṇatim asau cakravapuṣā
trayāṇāṃ rakṣāyai tripurahara jāgarti jagatām Smst_19

O Destroyer of Tripura, Hari rooted out his lotus eye to make deficiency when one flower was missing in his offering of a thousand lotuses to Thy feet; this great devotion transformed into a discus is alert in protecting the three worlds. 19

kratau supte jāgrat tvam asi phalayoge kratumatāṃ
kva karma pradhvastaṃ palati puruṣārādhanam ṛte
atas tvāṃ samprekṣya tratuṣu phaladānapratibhuvaṃ
śrutau śraddhāṃ baddhvā dṛḍhaparikaraḥ karmasu janaḥ Smst_20

The sacrifice being destroyed Thou ever remainest the connecting link between the sacrificers and the fruit of the sacrifice. When does the destroyed sacrifice bear fruit, if not accompanied by the worship of the Lord? Therefore knowing Thee to be the giver of fruits and putting faith in the Vedas, people become resolute about the performance of sacrifical rites. 20

kriyādakṣo dakṣaḥ kratupatir adhīśas tanubhṛtām
ṛṣīṇām ārtvijyaṃ śaraṇada sadasyāḥ suragaṇāḥ
kratubhraṃśas tvattaḥ kratuphalavidhānavyasanino
dhruvaṃ kartuḥ śraddhāvidhuram abhicārāya hi makhāḥ Smst_21

Thou Giver of refuge, even the sacrifice where Daksha, the Lord of creation expert in sacrifices was the sacrificer, Rishis were priests, gods were supervisors, was destroyed by Thee though Thou art bent upon giving fruits of the sacrifices. Surely the sacrifices cause injury to the sacrificers in the absence of devotion. 21

prajānāthaṃ prasabham abhikaṃ svāṃ duhitaraṃ
gataṃ rohidbhūtāṃ riramayiṣum ṛśyasya vapuṣā
dhanuṣpāṇer yātaṃ divam api sapatrākṛtam amuṃ
trasantaṃ te 'dyāpi tyajati na mṛgavyādharabhasaḥ Smst_22

O Lord, the fury of Thee who became a hunter with a bow in hand has not as yet left Brahmā though, keenly pierced by Thy arrow and terror stricken, he has fled to the sky. 22

svalāvaṇyāśaṃsādhṛtadhanuṣam ahnāya tṛṇavat
puraḥ pluṣṭaṃ dṛṣṭvā puramathana puṣpāyudham api
yadi straiṇaṃ yamanirata dehārdhaghaṭanād
avaiti tvām addhā bata varada mugdhā yuvatayaḥ Smst_23

O Destroyer of Tripura, O Giver of boons even on seeing in front the god of love, bow in hand burnt like a straw in a trice by Thee, if Pārvatī proud of Her beauty thinks that Thou art under Her fascination, because She was allowed to occupy half of Thy body on account of austerities, ah, surely the young women are under delusion. 23

śmaśāneṣv ākrīḍā smarahara piśācāḥ sahacarāś
citābhasmālepaḥ srag api nṛkaroṭīparikaraḥ
amāṅgalyaṃ śīlaṃ tava bhavatu nāmaivam akhilaṃ
tathāpi smart.Rṇāṃ varada paramaṃ maṅgalam asi Smst_24

O Destroyer of the God of love, O Giver of boons, Thy play is in cremation grounds, Thy companions are the ghosts, Thou besmearest Thy body with the ashes of burnt bodies and human skulls are Thy garlands all Thy conduct indeed is thus full of evil. But Thou conduces to the great good of those who remember Thee. 24

manaḥ pratyakcitte savidham avadhāyāttamarutaḥ
prahṛṣyadromāṇaḥ pramadasalilotsaṅgitadṛśaḥ
yad ālokyāhlādaṃ hrada iva nimajyāmṛtamaye
dadhaty antas tattvaṃ kim api yaminas tat kila bhavān Smst_25

Thou art indeed that unspeakable truth which the Yogis realize through meditation on the Self, on controlling the breath according to the scriptural directions, and realize which they shed tears of thrilling joy and swimming as it were in a pool of nectar, enjoy inner bliss. 25

tvam arkas tvaṃ somas tvam asi pavanas tvaṃ hutavahas
tvam āpas tvaṃ vyoma tvam u dharaṇir ātmā tvam iti ca
paricchinnām evaṃ tvayi pariṇatā bibhrati giraṃ
na vidmas tat tattvaṃ vayam iha tu yat tvaṃ na bhavasi Smst_26

The wise hold this limiting opinion about Thee - Thou art the Sun, Thou art the Moon, Thou art the Fire, Thou art the Air, Thou art the Water, Thou art the space, thou art the Earth and Thou art the Self. But we do not know that thing which Thou art not. 26

trayīṃ tisro vṛttīs tribhuvanam atho trīn api surān
nakārādyair varṇais tribhir abhidadhat tīrṇavikṛti
turīyaṃ te dhāma dhvanibhir avarundhānam
aṇubhiḥsamastaṃ vyastaṃ tvāṃ śaraṇada gṛṇātīm iti padam Smst_27

O Giver of refuge, with the three letters A, U, M indicating the three Vedas, the three states, the three worlds and the three Gods, the word OM mentions Thee separately. United by the subtle sound the word OM collectively mentions Thee - Thy Absolute Transcendent State. 27

bhavaḥ śarvo rudraḥ paśupatir athograḥ sahamahāṃs
tathā bhīmeśānāv iti yad abhidhānāṣṭakam idam
amuṣmin pratyekaṃ pravicarati deva śrutir api
priyāyāsmai dhāmne praṇihitanamasyo 'smi bhavate Smst_28

O Lord, Bhava, Śarva , Rudra, Paśupati, Ugra, Mahādeva, Bhīma, and Īśāna – these eight names are mentioned even in the Vedas. To Thee who art beloved and effulgent I bow down. 28

namo nediṣṭhāya priyadava daviṣṭhāya ca namo
namaḥ kṣodiṣṭhāya smarahara mahiṣṭhāya ca namaḥ
namo varṣiṣṭhāya trinayana yaviṣṭhāya ca namo
namaḥ sarvasmai te tad idam iti sarvāya ca namaḥ Smst_29

O Lover of solitude, my salutations to Thee who are very near as also very far, far away. O Destroyer of the god of love my salutations to Thee who art the minutest as also the largest. O Three eyed One, my salutations to Thee who art the oldest as also the youngest. This is my salutations to thee who art all as also transcending all. 29

bahularajase viśvotpattau bhavāya namo namaḥ
prabalatamase tatsaṃhāre harāya namo namaḥ
janasukhakṛte sattvotpattau mṛdāya namo namaḥ
pramahasi pade nistraiguṇye śivāya namo namaḥ Smst_30

Salutations to Brahmā in whom Rajas preponderates for the creation of the universe, salutation to Rudra in whom Tamas preponderates for the destruction of the same. Salutation to Vishnu in whom Sattva preponderates for giving happiness to the people, Salutation to Śiva who is effulgent and beyond the three attributes. 30

kṛśapariṇati cetaḥ kleśavaśyaṃ kva cedaṃ
kva ca tava guṇasīmollaṅghinī śāśvadṛddhiḥ
iti cakitam anandīkṛtya māṃ bhaktir ādhād
varaca caraṇayos te vākyapuṣpopahāram Smst_31

O Giver of boons, why is my ill-developed mind subject to misery and where is Thy Divinity - eternal and possessing infinite virtues? Though terror stricken because of this, I am forced by my devotion to offer this hymn at Thy feet. 31

asitagirisamaṃ syāt kajjalaṃ sindhupātre
surataruvaraśākhā lekhanī patram urvī
likhati yadi gṛhītvā śāradā sarvakālaṃ
tad api tava guṇānām īśa pāraṃ na yāti Smst_Add_32

O Lord if the blue mountain be the ink, the ocean the ink-pot, the branch of the heavenly tree be pen, the earth the writing leaf, and by taking these if the Goddess of Learning writes for eternity, even then the limit of Thy virtues will not be reached. 32

asurasuramunīndrair arcitasyendumauleḥ
prathitaguṇamahimno nirguṇasyeśvarasya
sakalaguṇavariṣṭhaḥ puṣpadantābhidhāno
ruciram alaghuvṛttaiḥ stotram etac cakāra Smst_Add_33

The best of the Gandharvas, Pushpadanta by name, composed in great devotion this beautiful hymn of the Lord, who is worshipped by demons, gods and the best of sages, whose praises have been sung who has got the moon on His forehead and who is attributeless. 33

aharāhar anavadyaṃ dhūrjaṭe stotram etat
paṭhati paramabhaktyā śuddhacittaḥ pumān yaḥ
sa bhavati śivaloke rudratulyaḥ sadātmā
pracurataradhanāyuḥ putravān kīrtimāṃś ca Smst_Add_34

The person who with purified heart and in great devotion always reads this beautiful hymn to Śiva becomes like Śiva after death in the abode of Śiva, and while in this world gets much wealth, long life, many children as also fame. 34

maheśān nāparo devo mahimno nāparā stutiḥ
aghorān nāparo mantro nāsti tattvaṃ guroḥ param Smst_Add_35

There is no God better than Śiva, there is no hymn better than the Hymn on The Greatness of Śiva, there is no sacred word better than the name of Śiva, there is nothing better to be known than the real nature of spiritual teacher. 35

dīkṣā dānaṃ tapas tīrthaṃ jñānaṃ yāgādikāḥ kriyāḥ
mahimnas tava pāṭhasya kalāṃ nārhanti ṣoḍaśīm Smst_Add_36

Getting initiation into the spiritual life, charity, austerity, pilgrimage, knowledge of the scriptures the performance of sacrificial rites - these do not give one-sixteenth part of the merit that is got by reciting the Hymn on the Greatness Of Śiva. 36

āsamāptam idaṃ stotraṃ puṇyaṃ gandharvabhāṣitam
anaupamyaṃ manohāri śivam īśvaravarṇanam Smst_Add_37

The Lord of Gandharvas, Pushpadanta by name is the servant of the great God who has the crescent moon on His forehead. Fallen from his glory due to the anger of the Lord, he composed this very beautiful Hymn on the Greatness Of Śiva to regain His favor. 37


worshipping Śiva, who is adored by Gods and who grants heaven and liberation, if one with single minded devotion and folded palms reads the unfailing hymn composed by Pushpadanta, one goes to Śiva, being worshipped by Kinnaras. 38


This unparalleled, sacred hymn composed by Pushpadanta and describing the glory of God is all very fascinating from start to finish. 39

ity eṣā vāṅmayī pūjā śrīmacchaṃkarapādayoḥ
arpitā tena deveśaḥ prīyatāṃ me sadāśivaḥ Smst_Add_40

This hymnal worship is offered to the feet of Śiva. May the ever - propitious Lord of Gods be pleased with me at this. 40

tava tattvaṃ na jānāmi kīdṛśo 'si maheśvara
yādṛśo 'si mahādeva tādṛśāya namo namaḥ Smst_Add_41

O Lord, I do not know the true nature of Thy being - of what kind Thou art. Of whatever nature Thou mayest be, O Great God to That my salutation again and again. 41

ekakālaṃ dvikālaṃ vā trikālaṃ yaḥ paṭhen naraḥ
lambapāśavinirmuktaḥ śivalokaṃ sa gacchati Smst_Add_42

The person who reads this hymn once, twice or thrice is glorified in the abode of Śiva, being freed from all sins. 42

śrīpuṣpadantamukhapaṅkajanirgatena stotreṇa kilbiṣahareṇa harapriyeṇa
kaṇṭhasthitena paṭhitena gṛhasthitena samprīṇito bhavati bhūtapatir maheśaḥ Smst_Add_43

If a person learns by heart, reads or keeps in the home this hymn, which came out of the lips of Pushpadanta and which destroys sins and is dear to Śiva, Śiva the Lord of creation becomes very pleased. 43

Friday, September 18, 2009

Atharvana Veda - Hymns in praise of Bhava & Sarva

Bhava and Sarva are the names of Lord Rudra. Lord Rudra not only created the worlds but also entered into it. He entered into pancha bhutas,(ie., Earth,Air,Water,Sky and Fire). he is Indweller (Antaryamin) of all.



tamabravīdbhavo 'sīti tadyadasya tannāmākarotparjanyastadrūpamabhavatparjanyo
vai bhavaḥ parjanyāddhīdaṃ sarvam bhavati so 'bravījjyāyānvā ato 'smi dhehyeva me nāmeti
( Satapata Brahmana 6.1.3.[15])

Meaning:
. He said to him, 'Thou art Bhava.' And because he gave him that name, Parjanya (the rain-god) became suchlike ; for Bhava is Parjanya,since everything here comes (bhavati) from Prajanya.He said, * Surely, I am mightier than that :give me yet a name !


Since everything comes( in sankrit, "Bhavati") from Lord Shiva , he is called with name 'Bhava".

Similarly,

tamabravītsarvo 'sīti tadyadasya tannāmākarodāpastadrūpamabhavannāpo vai sarvo
'dbhyo hīdaṃ sarvaṃ jāyate so 'bravījjyāyānvā ato 'smi dhehyeva me nāmeti ( Satapata Btahmana 6.1.3.[11])


Meaning:

He said to him, 'Thou art Sarva.' And because he gave him that name, the waters became suchlike, for Sarva is the waters, inasmuch as from the water everything (sarva) here is produced. He said, ' Surely, I am mightier than that : give me yet a name !

Since, Everything(in sanskrit - "sarva") is produced & pervaded by Lord Shiva , He is called with name "Sarva".

In Atharvana Veda, there are two different 'Sukams' which glorify Bhava&Sarva. These Hymns clearly establish the Supreme sovereignity of Lord Rudra over the creation and gods as well. In the very first verse of the Suktam , the Rishi says that Everything that shines in the universe because of lord Rudra only. He is the lord of everything that Shines (ie., lord of every being that has consciousness).
In the suktam, At the end of every verse, the Rishi says that lord Rudra rules both Two footed and Four footed. The samething is told in svetasvatara upanishad as well.

yo devānām adhipo
yasmin lokā adhiśritāḥ
ya īśe asya dvipadaś catuṣpadaḥ
kasmai devāya haviṣā vidhema ( IV-13; Svetasvatara upanishad)

Meaning:
He who is the sovereign of the gods, in whom the worlds find their support, who rules over all two—footed and four—footed beings—let us serve that God, radiant and blissful, with an oblation.

In the Second verse, the Rishi says that Lord Rudra is the Lord(isa) of all that is near and also all that is very far as well.

In the Third verse, The Rishi says that Lord Rudra slayed Vritra. As per Vedas, Vritra was slayed by Indra. But here it is said that Lord Rudra slayed Vritra. The confusion arises for ordinary minds who believe in duality. but, the Rishis intention is that Lord Indra is also a form of Lord Rudra only. The Rishi realised that Lord Rudra is truly Brahman. Hence, he saw, from blade of grass to Lord Brahma, everything as a manifestation of lord Rudra. Rishi Aghora,the mantra drashta of Satarudriyam portion of Yajurveda also saw rudra even in dogs,thieves,rain cloud,sand,gamblers,waters,fishermen,trees,stones...etc. They practically experienced Brahman(Rudra). They proclaimed " Sarvam Khalvidam Brahma ".

In the fith verse, The Rishi, regarding the lordship of Lord Rudra over the gods and the creation, says that NONE CAN ESCAPE FROM THE ARROWS OF RUDRA. EVEN GODS CANNOT ESCAPE.

In the The tenth verse of Atharva Veda XI-2 , the seer says that All the four directions belong to Lord Rudra. The Heaven(dyáus), the Earth(pr̥thivī́), the Space(àntárikṣam) are under the sole Lordship of Rudra . All the beings that breath and which has Soul belongs to Rudra.(távedáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇát) In fact, he is isha(lord) of all.

In the sixteenth verse, the Rishi says that everyone should Worship Lord Rudra in the Morning,
Afternoon,Evening and even during the night. This shows that Lord Rudra is not an ordinary god who was remembered during specific occasions only. But,Lord Rudra is 'Iswara'. so, he must be worshiped by all at all times. In spite of it, Some fanatics ,like Vaishnavas, often demean Lord Shiva.

In the seventeenth Verse, The Rishi Urges people not to offend Lord Rudra with their tongues. But, still, even now we can see several wicked vaishnavas who criticise Lord Shiva.

In the Twentyfifth verse, the Rishi describes that Lord Rudra can see everything that is happening here on earth with just one glance. He need not even move. By mere will everything happens. The Rishi says that Rudra is omniscient.

In the Twentyseventh verse, the Rishi describes the omnipresence of Lord Rudra. He says that Rudra is the Ruler of Heaven, Ruler of Earth. Lord Rudra pervades everything.

Atharvana Veda IV-28 :

bhávāśarvau manvé vāṃ tásya vittaṃ yáyor vām idáṃ pradíśi yád virócate
yā́v asyéśāthe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 1

O Bhava and Sarva, I am devoted to you. Take note of that, ye under whose control, is all this which shines (the visible universe)! Ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures,Deliver us, ye twain, from grief and trouble.

yáyor abhyabhvá utá yád dūré cid yáu viditā́v iṣubhŕ̥tām ásiṣṭhau
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 2

Ye to whom belongs all that is near by, yea, all that is far; ye who are known as the most skilful archers among bowmen; ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

sahasrākṣáu vr̥trahánā huveháṃ dūrégavyūtī stuvánn emy ugráu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 3

The thousand-eyed slayers of Vritra both do I invoke. I go praising the two strong gods (ugrau) whose pastures extend far. Ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

yā́v ārebhā́the bahú sākám ágre prá céd ásrāṣṭram abhibhā́ṃ jáneṣu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 4

Ye who, united, did undertake many (deeds) of old, and, moreover, did visit portents upon the. people; ye who rule all these two-footed and fourfooted creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

yáyor vadhā́n nā́papádyate káś canā́ntár devéṣūtá mā́nuṣeṣu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 5

Ye from whose blows no one either among gods or men escapes; ye who rule all these twofooted and fourfooted creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

yáḥ kr̥tyākŕ̥n mūlakŕ̥d yātudhā́no ní tásmin dhattaṃ vájram ugráu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 6

The sorcerer who prepares a spell, or manipulates the roots (of plants) against us, against him, ye strong gods, launch your thunderbolt! Ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

ádhi no brūtaṃ pŕ̥tanāsūgrau sáṃ vájreṇa sr̥jataṃ yáḥ kimīdī́
stáumi bhavāśarváu nāthitó johavīmi táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 7

Ye strong gods, favour us in battles, bring into contact with your thunderbolt the Kimîdin! I praise you, O Bhava and Sarva, call fervently upon you in distress: deliver us from grief and trouble.

Atharvana Veda XI-2:

bhávāśarvau mr̥ḍátaṃ mā́bhí yātaṃ bhū́tapatī páśupatī námo vām
prátihitām ā́yatāṃ mā́ ví srāṣṭaṃ mā́ no hiṃsiṣṭaṃ dvipádo mā́ cátuṣpadaḥ 1

O Bhava and Sarva, be merciful, do not attack (us); ye lords of beings, lords of cattle, reverence be to you twain! Discharge not your arrow even after it has been laid on (the bow), and has been drawn! Destroy not our bipeds and our quadrupeds!

śúne kroṣṭré mā́ śárīrāṇi kártam alíklavebhyo gŕ̥dhrebhyo yé ca kr̥ṣṇā́ aviṣyávaḥ
mákṣikās te paśupate váyāṃsi te vighasé mā́ vidanta 2

Prepare not our bodies for the dog, or the jackal; for the aliklavas, the vultures, and the black birds! Thy greedy insects, O lord of cattle (pasupate), and thy birds shall not get us to devour!

krándāya te prāṇā́ya yā́ś ca te bhava rópayaḥ
námas te rudra kr̥ṇmaḥ sahasrākṣā́yāmartya 3

Reverence we offer, O Bhava, to thy roaring, to thy breath, and to thy injurious qualities; reverence to thee, O Rudra, thousand-eyed, immortal!

purástāt te námaḥ kr̥ṇma uttarā́d adharā́d utá
abhīvargā́d divás páry antárikṣāya te námaḥ 4

We offer reverence to thee from the east, from the north, and from the -south; from (every) domain, and from heaven. Reverence be to thy atmosphere(antárikṣāya)!

múkhāya te paśupate yā́ni cákṣūṃṣi te bhava
tvacé rūpā́ya saṃdŕ̥śe pratīcī́nāya te námaḥ 5

To thy face, O lord of cattle, to thy eyes, O Bhava, to thy skin, to thy form, thy appearance, (and to thy aspect) from behind, reverence be!

áṅgebhyas ta udárāya jihvā́yā āsyā̀ya te
dadbhyó gandhā́ya te námaḥ 6

To thy limbs, to thy belly, to thy tongue, to thy mouth, to thy teeth, to thy smell (nose), reverence be!

ástrā nī́laśikhaṇḍena sahasrākṣéṇa vājínā
rudréṇārdhakaghātínā téna mā́ sám arāmahi 7

May we not conflict with Rudra, the archer with the dark crest, the thousand-eyed, powerful one, the slayer of Ardhaka!

sá no bhaváḥ pári vr̥ṇaktu viśváta ā́pa ivāgníḥ pári vr̥ṇaktu no bhaváḥ
mā́ no 'bhí māṃsta námo astv asmai 8

Bhava shall steer clear from us on all sides, Bhava shall steer clear from us, as fire from water! May he not bear malice towards us: reverence be to him!

catúr námo aṣṭakŕ̥tvo bhavā́ya dáśa kŕ̥tvaḥ paśupate námas te
távemé páñca paśávo víbhaktā gā́vo áśvāḥ púruṣā ajāváyaḥ 9

Four times, eight times, be reverence to Bhava, ten times be reverence to thee, O lord of cattle! To thy (charge) have been assigned these five (kinds of) cattle: cows, horses, men, goats and sheep.

táva cátasraḥ pradíśas táva dyáus táva pr̥thivī́ távedám ugrorv àntárikṣam
távedáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇát pr̥thivī́m ánu 10

Thine, O strong god (ugra), are the four regions, thine the sky, thine the earth, and thine this broad atmosphere; thine is this all that has a spirit and has breath upon the earth.

urúḥ kóśo vasudhā́nas távāyáṃ yásminn imā́ víśvā bhúvanāny antáḥ
sá no mr̥ḍa paśupate námas te paráḥ kroṣṭā́ro abhibhā́ḥ śvā́naḥ paró yantv agharúdo vikeśyàḥ 11

Thine is this broad, treasure-holding receptacle within which all worlds are contained. Do thou spare us, O lord of cattle: reverence be to thee! Far from us shall go the jackals, evil omens, dogs; far shall go (the mourning women) who bewail rnisfortune with dishevelled hair!

dhánur bibharṣi háritaṃ hiraṇyáyaṃ sahasraghníṃ śatávadhaṃ śikhaṇḍin
rudrásyéṣuś carati devahetís tásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ 12

Thou, O crested (god), carriest in (thy hand), that smites thousands, a yellow, golden bow that slays hundreds; Rudra's arrow, the missile of the gods, flies abroad: reverence be to it, in whatever direction from here (it flies)!

yò 'bhíyāto niláyate tvā́ṃ rudra nicíkīrṣati
paścā́d anupráyuṅkṣe táṃ viddhásya padanī́r iva 13

The adversary who lurks and seeks to overcome thee, O Rudra, upon him thou dost fasten thyself from behind, as (the hunter) that follows the trail of a wounded (animal).

bhavārudráu sayújā saṃvidānā́v ubhā́v ugráu carato vīryā̀ya
tā́bhyāṃ námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ 14

Bhava and Rudra, united and concordant, both strong (ugrau), ye advance to deeds of heroism: reverence be to both of them, in whatever direction (they are) from here!

námas te astv āyaté námo astu parāyaté
námas te rudra tíṣṭhata ā́sīnāyotá te námaḥ 15

Reverence be to thee coming, reverence to thee going; reverence, O Rudra, be to thee standing, and reverence, also, to thee sitting!

námaḥ sāyáṃ námaḥ prātár námo rā́tryā námo dívā
bhavā́ya ca śarvā́ya cobhā́bhyām akaraṃ námaḥ 16

Let us pay our homage in the morning, during the day, in the evening, and at night – to the Lord who grants us life and who takes it away (Bhava/Sarva).

sahasrākṣám atipaśyáṃ purástād rudrám ásyantaṃ bahudhā́ vipaścítam
mópārāma jihváyéyamānam 17

Let us not with our tongue offend Rudra, who rushes on, thousand-eyed, overseeing all, who hurls (his shafts) forward, who is manifoldly wise!

śyāvā́śvaṃ kr̥ṣṇám ásitaṃ mr̥ṇántaṃ bhīmáṃ ráthaṃ keśínaḥ pādáyantam
pū́rve prátīmo námo astv asmai 18

We approach first the (god) that has dark horses, is black, sable, destructive, terrible, who casts down the car of Kesin: reverence be to him!

mā́ no 'bhí srā matyàṃ devahetíṃ mā́ naḥ krudhaḥ paśupate námas te
anyátrāsmád divyā́ṃ śā́khāṃ ví dhūnu 19

Do not hurl at us thy club, thy divine bolt; be not incensed at us, O lord of cattle! Shake over some other than us the celestial branch!

mā́ no hiṃsīr ádhi no brūhi pári ṇo vr̥ṅdhi mā́ krudhaḥ
mā́ tváyā sám arāmahi 20

Injure us not, interpose for us, spare us, be not angry with us! Let us not contend with thee!

mā́ no góṣu púruṣeṣu mā́ gr̥dho no ajāvíṣu
anyátrogra ví vartaya píyārūṇāṃ prajā́ṃ jahi 21

Do not covet our cattle, our men, our goats and sheep! Bend thy course elsewhere, O strong god (ugra), slay the offspring of the blasphemers!

yásya takmā́ kā́sikā hetír ékam áśvasyeva vŕ̥ṣaṇaḥ kránda éti
abhipūrváṃ nirṇáyate námo astv asmai 22

He whose missile, fever and cough, assails the single (victim), as the snorting of a stallion, who snatches away (his victims) one by one, to him be reverence!

yò 'ntárikṣe tíṣṭhati víṣṭabhitó 'yajvanaḥ pramr̥ṇán devapīyū́n
tásmai námo daśábhiḥ śákvarībhiḥ 23

He who dwells fixed in the atmosphere, smiting the blasphemers of the god that do not sacrifice, to him be reverence with ten sakvarî-stanzas!

túbhyam āraṇyā́ḥ paśávo mr̥gā́ váne hitā́ haṃsā́ḥ suparṇā́ḥ śakunā́ váyāṃsi
táva yakṣáṃ paśupate apsv àntás túbhyaṃ kṣaranti divyā́ ā́po vr̥dhé 24

For thee the wild beasts of the forest have been placed in the forest: flamingoes, eagles, birds of prey, and fowls. Thy spirit, O lord of cattle, is within the waters, to strengthen thee the heavenly waters flow.

\śiṃśumā́rā ajagarā́ḥ purīkáyā jaṣā́ mátsyā rajasā́ yébhyo ásyasi
ná te dūráṃ ná pariṣṭhā́sti te bhava sadyáḥ sárvāṃ pári paśyasi bhū́miṃ pū́rvasmād dhaṃsy úttarasmint samudré 25

The dolphins, great serpents (boas), purîkayas (water-animals), sea-monsters, fishes, ragasas at which thou shootest-there exists for thee, O Bhava, no distance, and no barrier. At a glance thou lookest around the entire earth; from the eastern thou slayest in the northern ocean.

mā́ no rudra takmánā mā́ viṣéṇa mā́ naḥ sáṃ srā divyénāgnínā
anyátrāsmád vidyútaṃ pātayaitā́m 26

Do not, O Rudra, contaminate us with fever, or with poison, or with heavenly fire: cause this lightning to descend elsewhere than upon us!

bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣam
tásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ 27

Bhava rules the sky, Bhava rules the earth; Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!

bháva rājan yájamānāya mr̥ḍa paśūnā́ṃ hí paśupátir babhū́tha
yáḥ śraddádhāti sánti devā́ íti cátuṣpade dvipáde 'sya mr̥ḍa 28

O king Bhava, be merciful to thy worshipper, for thou art the lord of living beasts! He who believes the gods exist, to his quadruped and biped be merciful!

mā́ no mahā́ntam utá mā́ no arbhakáṃ mā́ no váhantam utá mā́ no vakṣyatáḥ
mā́ no hiṃsīḥ pitáraṃ mātáraṃ ca svā́ṃ tanvàṃ rudra mā́ rīriṣo naḥ 29

Slay neither our great nor our small; neither those of us that are riding, nor those that shall ride; neither our father, nor our mother. Cause no injury, O Rudra, to our own persons!

rudrásyailabakārébhyo 'saṃsūktagilébhyaḥ
idáṃ mahā́syebhyaḥ śvábhyo akaraṃ námaḥ 30

To Rudra's howling dogs, who swallow their food without blessing, who have wide jaws, I have made this obeisance.

námas te ghoṣíṇībhyo námas te keśínībhyaḥ
námo námaskr̥tābhyo námaḥ saṃbhuñjatī́bhyaḥ
námas te deva sénābhyaḥ svastí no ábhayaṃ ca naḥ 31

Reverence, O god, be to thy shouting hosts, reverence to thy long-haired, reverence to thy reverenced, reverence to thy devouring hosts! May well-being and security be to us!

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

A Hymn to Prana

“As small sparks come forth from fire, thus do all Pranas(Rudras/maruts)) come forth from that Brahman(Rudra)” (Bri. Up. II.1.20).


Pranas(Life forces) are known as Rudras(maruts). They are popularly called as "Sons of Rudra(Atma)". Hence, Rudra(Atma) is called as 'Prana' of 'pranas'. Infact, there is only one 'Prana'. It performs several fuctions. So, depending on fuctions they are classified in several ways. The pranas are the Glory of Atman(Rudra). The popular life forces are prana,Apana,Vyana, Udana ..etc. But Samana is called as "Mukhya prana"( Vital life). The pranas perform several ancillary fuctions. if we count that too,there will be thousands and thousands of pranas. Just like
books in a library can be classified in several ways like subject,author,etc, the pranas can also be classified in several ways. in spite of all, there is only one Atman ( ie., Prana of pranas) which is lord of all.

The doubt, regarding the number of pranas, arises here owing to the conflicting nature of the scriptural passages.

In one place seven Pranas are mentioned, “The seven Pranas spring from Him” (Mun. Up. II.1.8).

In an other place eight Pranas are mentioned as being Grahas “Eight Grahas there are and eight Atigrahas” (Bri. Up. III.2.1).
In an other place nine “Seven are the Pranas of the head, two the lower ones” (Tait. SamhitaV.3.2.5).
Some times ten “Nine Pranas in deed are in man, the navel is the tenth” (Tait. Samhita V.3.2.3).
Some times eleven ,Ten are these Pranas in man, and Atman is the eleventh” (Bri. Up. III.9.4).
Sometimes twelve “All touches have their centre in the skin” (Bri. Up.II.4.11).
Some times thirteen “The eye and what can be seen” (Prasna Up. IV.8).

Thus the scriptural passages disagree about the number of the Pranas (organs)
But, All the statements are True. The number varies because of the method of classification adopted.

In addition to the seven Pranas scripture mentions other Pranasalso, such as the hands, etc. “The hand is one Graha (organ) and thatis seized by work as the Atigraha; for with the hands one does work”(Bri. Up. III.2.8), and similar passages, “ten are the Pranas in a manand Atman with these completes the number eleven” (Bri. Up. III.9.4),indicate that the hands etc., are additional organs. Therefore, fourother organs viz., hands, feet, anus and the organ of generation haveto be added to the seven organs already mentioned, viz., eyes, nose,ears, tongue, touch (skin), speech, and mind, the inner organ. The intellect, egoism, Chitta or memory are not separate organs. They are only modifications of the mind.Therefore, the number of organs is in all eleven. This is the number that is fixed. They are, the five organs of knowledge(Jnana-Indriyas), the five organs of action (Karma-Indriyas) and theinner organ, mind.
To unite all the diverse activities of the organs, it is necessarythat there should be an organ which must exist as a unifying agentwith the memory of the past and the present to gether with the antici -pation of the future, because without such an organ the activities ofthe organs would be unharmonised and discordant. This unifying organ is the inner organ or the Manas (mind). This one inner organ assumes four names such as mind, intellect, egoism and Chitta,according to the functions it performs (Vrittibheda).

In the passage “Nine Pranas in deed are in man, the navel is thetenth”, the expression “ten Pranas” is used to denote the differentopenings of the human body, not the difference of nature of thePranas. Because no Prana is known that bears the name of navel. Asthe navel is one of the special abodes of the chief Prana, it is here enumerated as tenth Prana.


Relation Between Atman(Rudra) and Pranas(rudras/Maruts)
The relationship between Pranas(Maruts/rudras) and Atman(Rudra) is very subtle. Since, Life forces sprang from Atman(Rudra) That's why the seers call Pranas(maruts/rudras) as Sons of Rudra(Atman).

"This prana is born of Atman. As a shadow is cast by a person, so this prana is, by Atman. Through theactivity of the mind it comes into this body".( Prasna Upanishad III-3)

katame rudrā́ iti. daśeme puruṣe prā́ṇā́ḥ ā́tmaikā́daśaḥ; te yadā́smā́t śarīrā́nmartyā́d utkrā́manti, atha rodayanti, tad yad rodayanti, tasmā́d rudrā́ iti. ( Brihadaranyaka Upanishad III-9-4)

Meaning:
“Who are the Rudras?” "The ten Pranas and the Atman make eleven. These are the Rudras.” When the pranas and the atman leave the body, they make one cry in anguish. that's why they are called "Rudras”

katama eko deva iti. prā́ṇa iti, sa brahma, tyad ity ā́cakṣate. ( Brihadaranyaka Upanishad III-9-9)
Meaning:
‘Which is the one god ?’ ‘The Prana ( ie., Atma) is the only God; it is Brahman, which is called Tyat (that).’

Here Multiplicity of Gods came to an end. All gods are various facets of this supreme being only. The One Atma( Prana or Rudra) alone appears as several deities. The Rudra(Atman) is the Only Reality (ie., Sath) who is called with various names. All gods are parts(ie., facets) of Rudra(atman) only.


eko hi rudro na dvitīyāya tasthur
ya imāṃl lokān īśata īśanībhiḥ
pratyaṅ janāṃs tiṣṭhati sañcukocānta-kāle
saṃsṛjya viśvā bhuvanāni gopāḥ ( Svetasvatara Upanishad III-2)

Meaning:
"Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time."

yo devānāṃ prabhavaś codbhavaś
caviśvādhipo rudro maharṣiḥ
hiraṇyagarbhaṃ janayāmāsa pūrvaṃ
sa no buddhyā śubhayā saṃyunaktu ( Svetasvatara Upanishad III-4)

Meaning:
He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!

“Which then is that deity?” ‘Prana(Rudra)’ he said. Regarding theUdgitha it is said (Chh. Up. I-10-9), ‘Prastotri’ that deity which be longsto the Prastava etc.

“For all the beings merge in Prana(Rudra) alone and from Prana(Rudra) they arise. This is the deity belonging to the Prastava” (Chh. Up. I-11-4.)

Prana(Rudra) indeed is Brahman’ (Kau. Up. III-3)

A Hymn To Prana ( Atharva Veda XI-4 )

prāṇā́ya námo yásya sárvam idáṃ váśe
yó bhūtáḥ sárvasyeśvaró yásmint sárvaṃ prátiṣṭhitam 1

Reverence to Prâna, to whom all this (universe) is subject, who has become the lord of the all(sárvasya eśvara) , on whom the all is supported!

námas te prāṇa krándāya námas te stanayitnáve
námas te prāṇa vidyúte námas te prāṇa várṣate 2

Reverence, O Prâna, to thy roaring (wind), reverence, O Prâna, to thy thunder, reverence, O Prâna, to thylightning, reverence, O Prâna, to thy rain!

yát prāṇá stanayitnúnābhikrándaty óṣadhīḥ
prá vīyante gárbhān dadhaté 'tho bahvī́r ví jāyante 3

When Prâna calls aloud to the plants with his thunder, they are fecundated, they conceive, and then are produced abundant (plants).

yát prāṇá r̥tā́v ā́gate 'bhikrándaty óṣadhīḥ
sárvaṃ tadā́ prá modate yát kíṃ ca bhū́myām ádhi 4

When the season has arrived, and Prâna calls aloud to the plants, then everything rejoices, whatsoever is uponthe earth.

yadā́ prāṇó abhyávarṣīd varṣéṇa pr̥thivī́ṃ mahī́m
paśávas tát prá modante máho vái no bhaviṣyati 5

When Prâna has watered the great earth with rain, then the beasts rejoice; (they think): 'strength, forsooth, weshall now obtain.'

abhívr̥ṣṭā óṣadhayaḥ prāṇéna sám avādiran
ā́yur vái naḥ prā́tītaraḥ sárvā naḥ surabhī́r akaḥ 6

When they had been watered by Prâna, the plants spake in concert: 'thou hast, forsooth, prolonged our life,thou hast made us all fragrant.

námas te astv āyaté námo astu parāyaté
námas te prāṇa tíṣṭhata ā́sīnāyotá te námaḥ 7

Reverence be, O Prâna, to thee coming, reverence to thee going; 'reverence to thee standing, and reverence,too, to thee sitting!

námas te prāṇa prāṇaté námo astv apānaté
parācī́nāya te námaḥ pratīcī́nāya te námaḥ sárvasmai ta idáṃ námaḥ 8

Reverence be to thee, O Prâna, when thou breatbest in (primate), reverence when thou breathest out!Reverence be to thee when thou art turned away, reverence to thee when thou art turned hither: to thee, entire,reverence be here!

yā́ te prāṇa priyā́ tanū́r yó te prāṇa préyasī
átho yád bheṣajáṃ táva tásya no dhehi jīváse 9

Of thy dear form, O Prâna, of thy very dear form, of the healing power that is thine, give unto us, that we maylive!

prāṇáḥ prajā́ ánu vaste pitā́ putrám iva priyám
prāṇó ha sárvasyeśvaró yác ca prāṇáti yác ca ná 10

Prâna clothes the creatures, as a father his dear son. Prâna, truly, is the lord of all, of all that breathes, anddoes not breathe.

prāṇó mr̥tyúḥ prāṇás takmā́ prāṇáṃ devā́ úpāsate
prāṇó ha satyavādínam uttamé loká ā́ dadhat 11

Prâna is death, Prâna is fever. The gods worship Prana. Prâna shall place the truth-speaker in the highestworld

prāṇó virā́ṭ prāṇó déṣṭrī prāṇáṃ sárva úpāsate
prāṇó ha sū́ryaś candrámāḥ prāṇám āhuḥ prajā́patim 12

Prâna is Virâg (power, lustre), Prâna is Deshtrî (the divinity that guides): all worship Prâna. Prâna verily is sunand moon. They call Prâna Prajâpati.

prāṇāpānáu vrīhiyavā́v anaḍvā́n prāṇá ucyate
yáve ha prāṇá ā́hito 'pānó vrīhír ucyate 13

Rice and barley are in-breathing and outbreathing. Prâna is called a steer. In-breathing forsooth, is foundedupon barley; rice is called out-breathing.

ápānati prā́ṇati púruṣo gárbhe antarā́
yadā́ tváṃ prāṇa jínvasy átha sá jāyate púnaḥ 14

Man breathes out and breathes in when within the womb. When thou, O Prâna, quickenest him, then is he born again.

prāṇám āhur mātaríśvānaṃ vā́to ha prāṇá ucyate
prāṇé ha bhūtáṃ bhávyaṃ ca prāṇé sárvaṃ prátiṣṭhitam 15

They call Prâna Mâtarisvan (the wind); Prâna, forsooth, is called Vâta (the wind). The past and the future, theall, verily is supported upon Prâna.

ātharvaṇī́r āṅgirasī́r dáivīr manuṣyajā́ utá
óṣadhayaḥ prá jāyante yadā́ tváṃ prāṇa jínvasi 16

The holy (âtharvana) plants, the magic (ângirasa) plants, the divine plants, and those produced by men,spring forth, when thou, O Prâna, quickenest them.

yadā́ prāṇó abhyávarṣīd varṣéṇa pr̥thivī́ṃ mahī́m
óṣadhayaḥ prá jāyanté 'tho yā́ḥ kā́ś ca vīrúdhaḥ 17

When Prâna has watered the great earth with rain, then the plants spring forth, and also every sort of herb

yás te prāṇedáṃ véda yásmiṃś cāsi prátiṣṭhitaḥ
sárve tásmai balíṃ harān amúṣmiṃl loká uttamé 18

Whoever, O Prâna, knows this regarding thee, and (knows) on what thou art supported, to him all shall offertribute in yonder highest world.

yáthā prāṇa balihŕ̥tas túbhyaṃ sárvāḥ prajā́ imā́ḥ
evā́ tásmai balíṃ harān yás tvā śr̥ṇávat suśravaḥ 19

As all these creatures, O Prâna, offer thee tribute, so they shall offer tribute (in yonder world) to him whohears thee, O far-famed one!

antár gárbhaś carati devátāsv ā́bhūto bhūtáḥ sá u jāyate púnaḥ
sá bhūtó bhávyaṃ bhaviṣyát pitā́ putráṃ prá viveśā śácībhiḥ 20

He moves as an embryo within the gods; having arrived, and being in existence, he is born again. Havingarisen he enters with his mights the present and the future, as a father (goes to) his son.

ékaṃ pādaṃ nót khidati salilā́d dhaṃsá uccáran
yád aṅgá sá tám utkhidén náivā́dyá ná śváḥ syāt
ná rā́trī nā́haḥ syān ná vy ùchet kadā́ caná 21

When as a swan he rises from the water he does not withdraw his one foot. If in truth he were to withdraw it,there would be neither to-day, nor to-morrow, no night and no day, never would the dawn appear.

aṣṭā́cakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā́
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ katamáḥ sá ketúḥ 22

With eight wheels, and one felloe he moves, containing a thousand sounds (elements), upward in the east,downward in the west. With (his) half he produced the whole world: what is the visible sign of his (other) half?

yó asyá viśvájanmana ī́śe víśvasya céṣṭataḥ
ányeṣu kṣiprádhanvane tásmai prāṇa námo 'stu te 23

He who rules over this (all) derived from every source, and over everything that moves. Reverence be to thee, OPrâna, that wieldest a swift bow against others (the enemies)!

yó asyá sarvájanmana ī́śe sárvasya céṣṭataḥ
átandro bráhmaṇā dhī́raḥ prāṇó mā́nu tiṣṭhatu 24

May Prâna, who rules over this (all) derived from every source, and over everything that moves, (may he)unwearied, strong through the brahma, adhere to me!

ūrdhváḥ suptéṣu jāgāra nanú tiryáṅ ní padyate
ná suptám asya suptéṣv ánu śuśrāva káś caná 25

Erect he watches in those that sleep, nor does lie lie down across. No one has heard of his sleeping in thosethat sleep.

prā́ṇa mā́ mát paryā́vr̥to ná mád anyó bhaviṣyasi
apā́ṃ gárbham iva jīváse prā́ṇa badhnā́mi tvā máyi 26

O Prâna, be not turned away from me, thou shall not be other than myself! As the embryo of the waters (fire),thee, O Prâna, do bind to me, that I may live.

A Hymn to Lord Kâma(Rudra) --- Atharvana Veda IX-2 ,

Lord Rudra is called as "Kâma" or Kameshwara because he himself is 'Primodial desire'. The whole universe sprung because of the primodial desire. In the begining, there was neither existance nor non-existance, neither space nor time. There was no second being. Shiva(Brahman) alone breathed without wind. This primodial action is called as "Coming into Existance". This is possible only because of Desire. hence Lord shiva is called "Kâma" .

Rig veda (Nasadiya Suktam) 10:129:4 says :
" kāmas tad agre sam avartatādhi manaso retah prathamam yad āsit"
ie., Kâma rose in the beginning, Kâma, the primal seed and germ of Spirit.
The Whole creation aroused because of union of Shiva and Shakti.


Rudra's form is very terrifying. Even the vedik Rishis feared to utter the very name "Rudra". Instead of this name, the Rishis preferred to call him " This God" , "That God" or with other names like "Agni", "pashupati","Manyu","ugrá "..etc. Because of the terror of Rudra, fire burns,because of the terror of Rudra, the sun shines, Because of the terror of Rudra, The gods like Indra and Vayu and Death, the fifth,run.(bhayād asyāgnis tapati, bhayāt tapati sῡryaḥ: bhayād indraś ca vayuś ca, mṛtyur dhavati pañcamaḥ.) . Rudra is truly Nirguna Nirakara parabrahman, But,for the sake of administrating the worlds he takes different forms . some forms are terrifying while others are auspicious. When a hymn is addressed to Rudra, the singer begs for auspicious forms only and avoids terrifying forms. Even in Satarudriyam of Yajurveda , we can see the seer asking Rudra to appear before him in his Shiva form.

Yaa te rudra shiva tanu raghoraapapakashini
Taya nastanuva shantamaya girishantabhichakashihi
( Yajurveda iv:5:1c)

Meaning:

That body of thine, O Rudra, which is kindly,Not dread, with auspicious look,With that body, most potent to heal,O haunter of the mountains, do thou look on us.

Similarly, Here ( Atharva Veda 9:2:25) also , Lord Rudra(Kâma) is asked leave his ugrá form and appear in glorious śivā́ form.





sapatnahánam r̥ṣabháṃ ghr̥téna kā́maṃ śikṣāmi havíṣā́jyena
nīcáiḥ sapátnān máma padaya tvám abhíṣṭuto mahatā́ vīryèṇa 1

To the bull that slays the enemy, to Kâma, do I render tribute with ghee, oblation, and (sacrificial) melted butter. Do thou, since thou hast been extolled, hurl down my enemies by thy great might!

yán me mánaso ná priyáṃ cákṣuṣo yán me bábhasti nā́bhinándati
tád duṣvápnyaṃ práti muñcāmi sapátne kā́maṃ stutvód aháṃ bhideyam 2

The evil dream which is offensive to my mind and eye, which harasses and does not please me, that (dream) do I let loose upon my enemy. Having praised Kâma may I prevail!

duṣvápnyaṃ kāma duritáṃ ca kamāprajástām asvagátām ávartim
ugrá ī́śānaḥ práti muñca tásmin yó asmábhyam aṃhūraṇā́ cíkitsāt 3

Evil dreams, O Kâma, and misfortune, O Kâma, childlessness, ill-health, and trouble, do thou O ugrá O ī́śānaḥ , let loose upon him that designs evil against us!


nudásva kāma prá ṇudasva kāmā́vartiṃ yantu máma yé sapátnāḥ
téṣāṃ nuttā́nām adhamā́ támāṃsy ágne vā́stūni nír daha tvám 4

Drive them away, O Kâma, thrust them away, O Kâma; may they that are my enemies fall into trouble! When they have been driven into the nethermost darkness, do thou, O Agni, burn up their d welling- places!

sā́ te kāma duhitā́ dhenúr ucyate yā́m āhúr vā́caṃ kaváyo virā́jam
táyā sapátnān pári vr̥ṅgdhi yé máma páry enān prāṇáḥ paśávo jī́vanaṃ vr̥ṇaktu 5

That milch-cow, O Kâma, whom the sages call Vâk Virâg (ruling, or resplendent speech), is said to be thy daughter; by her drive away my enemies; breath, cattle, and life shall give them a wide birth!


kā́masyéndrasya váruṇasya rā́jño víṣṇor bálena savitúḥ savéna
agnér hotréṇa prá ṇude sapátnāṃ chambī́va nā́vam udakéṣu dhī́raḥ 6

With the strength of Kâma, Indra, king Varuna, and Vishnu, with the impelling force (savena) of Savitar, with the priestly power of Agni, do I drive forth the enemies, as a skilled steersman a boat.

ádhyakṣo vājī́ máma kā́ma ugráḥ kr̥ṇótu máhyam asapatnám evá
víśve devā́ máma nātháṃ bhavantu sárve devā́ hávam ā́ yantu ma imám 7

My sturdy guardian, ugráḥ Kâma, shall procure for me full freedom from enmity! May the gods collectively be my refuge, may all the gods respond to this, my invocation!

idám ā́jyaṃ ghr̥távaj juṣāṇā́ḥ kā́majyeṣṭhā ihá mādayadhvam
kr̥ṇvánto máhyam asapatnám evá 8

Taking pleasure in this (sacrificial) melted butter, and ghee do ye, (O gods), of whom Kâma is the highest, be joyful in this place, procuring for me full freedom from enmity

indrāgnī́ kāma saráthaṃ hí bhūtvā́ nīcáiḥ sapátnān máma pādayāthaḥ
téṣāṃ pannā́nām adhamā́ támāṃsy ágne vā́stūny anunírdaha tvám 9

O Indra and Agni, and Kâma, having formed an alliance, do ye hurl down my enemies; when they have fallen into the nethermost darkness, do thou, O Agni, burn up after them their dwelling places!

jahí tvám kāma máma yé sapátnā andhā́ támāṃsy áva pādayainān
nírindriyā arasā́ḥ santu sárve mā́ té jīviṣuḥ katamác canā́haḥ 10

Slay thou, O Kâma, those that are my enemies, hurl them down into blind darkness. Devoid of vigour, Without sap let them all be; they shall not live a single day!

ávadhīt kā́mo máma yé sapátnā urúṃ lokám akaran máhyam edhatúm
máhyaṃ namantāṃ pradíśaś cátasro máhyaṃ ṣáḍ urvī́r ghr̥tám ā́ vahantu 11

Kâma has slain those that are my enemies, a broad space has he furnished me to thrive in. May the four directions of space bow down to me, and the six broad (regions) carry ghee to me!

té 'dharā́ñcaḥ prá plavantāṃ chinnā́ náur iva bándhanāt
ná sā́yakapraṇuttānāṃ púnar asti nivártanam 12

They (the enemies) shall float down like a boat cut loose from its moorings! There is no returning again for those who have been struck by our missiles.

agnír yáva índro yávaḥ sómo yávaḥ
yavayā́vāno devā́ yavayantv enam 13

Agni is a defence, Indra a defence, Soma a defence. May the gods, who by their defence ward off (the enemy), ward him off!

ásarvavīraś caratu práṇutto dvéṣyo mitrā́nāṃ parivargyàḥ svā́nām
utá pr̥thivyā́m áva syanti vidyúta ugró vo deváḥ prá mr̥ṇat sapátnān 14

With his men reduced, driven out, the hated (enemy) shall go, shunned by his own friends! And down upon the earth do the lightnings alight; may that god ugra crush your enemies!

cyutā́ ceyáṃ br̥haty ácyutā ca vidyúd bibharti stanayitnū́ṃś ca sárvān
udyánn ādityó dráviṇena téjasā nīcáiḥ sapátnān nudatāṃ me sáhasvān 15

This mighty lightning supports both moveable(falliable) and immoveable(infalliable) things, as well as all thunders. May the risingsun by his resources and his majesty hurl down my enemies, lie the mighty one!

yát te kāma śárma trivárūtham udbhú bráhma várma vítatam anativyādhyàṃ kr̥tám
téna sapátnān pári vr̥ṅgdhi yé máma páry enān prāṇáḥ paśávo jī́vanaṃ vr̥ṇaktu 16

With that triple-armoured powerful covering of thine, O Kâma, with the charm that has been made into an Invulnerate armour spread (over thee), with that do thou drive away those who are my enemies; may breath, cattle, and life give them a wide berth!

yéna devā́ ásurān prā́ṇudanta yénéndro dásyūn adhamáṃ támo ninā́ya
téna tváṃ kāma máma yé sapátnās tā́n asmā́l lokā́t prá ṇudasva dūrám 17

With the weapon with which the god drove forth the Asuras, with which Indra led the Dasyus to the nethermost darkness, with that do thou, O Kâma, drive forth far away from this world those who are my enemies!

yáthā devā́ ásurān prā́ṇudanta yáthéndro dásyūn adhamáṃ támo babādhé
táthā tváṃ kāma máma yé sapátnās tā́n asmā́l lokā́t prá ṇudasva dūrám 18

As the gods drove forth the Asuras, as Indra. forced the demons into the nethermost darkness, thus do thou, O Kâma, drive forth far away from this world those who are my enemies!

kā́mo jajñe prathamó náinaṃ devā́ āpuḥ pitáro ná mártyāḥ
tátas tvám asi jyā́yān viśváhā mahā́ṃs tásmai te kāma náma ít kr̥nomi 19

Kâma was born at first; him neither the gods, nor the Fathers, nor men have equalled. To these art thou superior, and ever great; to thee, O Kâma, do I verily offer reverence.

yā́vatī dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ varimṇā́ yā́vad ā́paḥ siṣyadúr yā́vad agníḥ
tátas tvám asi jyā́yān viśváhā mahā́ṃs tásmai te kāma náma ít kr̥ṇomi 20

O Kâma, You are greater than all. You are higher than Heaven and wider than the Earth. You are farther than the waters have swept and hotter than fire. To that Kâma, do I verily offer reverence.

yā́vatīr díśaḥ pradíśo víṣūcīr yā́vatīr ā́śā abhicákṣaṇā diváḥ
tátas tvám asi jyā́yān viśváhā mahā́ṃs tásmai te kāma náma ít kr̥ṇomi 21

Great as are the directions (of space) and the intermediate direction on either side, great as are the regions and the vistas of the sky; to these art thou superior, To that Kâma, do I verily offer reverence

yā́vatīr bhŕ̥ṅgā jatvàḥ kurū́ravo yā́vatīr vághā vr̥kṣasarpyò babhūvúḥ
tátas tvám asi jyā́yān viśváhā mahā́ṃs tásmai te kāma náma ít kr̥ṇomi 22

As many bees, bats, kurûru-worms, as many vaghas and tree-serpents as there are; to these art thou superior . To that Kâma, do I verily offer reverence

jyā́yān nimiṣató 'si tíṣṭhato jyā́yānt samudrā́d asi kāma manyo
tátas tvám asi jyā́yān viśváhā mahā́ṃs tásmai te kāma náma ít kr̥nomi 23

Superior art thou to all that winks (lives), superior to all that stands still (is not alive), superior to the ocean art thou, O Kâma Manyu! To these art thou superior . To that Kâma, do I verily offer reverence

ná vái vā́taś caná kā́mam āpnoti nā́gníḥ sū́ryo nótá candrámāḥ
tátas tvám asi jyā́yān viśváhā mahā́ṃs tásmai te kāma náma ít kr̥ṇomi 24

O Kama, You are greater than all. You are faster than the wind, hotter than the Sun and greater than the Moon. You are farther than the waters have swept and hotter than fire. O Love, You are greater than all.Kâma, do I verily offer reverence

yā́s te śivā́s tanvàḥ kāma bhadrā́ yā́bhiḥ satyáṃ bhávati yád vr̥ṇiṣé
tā́bhiṣ ṭvám asmā́m̐ abhisáṃviśasvānyátra pāpī́r ápa veśayā dhíyaḥ 25

With those auspicious(śivā́h) and gracious forms of thine, O Kâma, through which what thou wilst becometh reaL with these do thou enter into us, and elsewhere send the evil thoughts!

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