Monday, March 29, 2010

Who is Shiva ? --- A discussion among Rishis


THE Pupil asks: 'At whose wish does the mind sent forth proceed on its errand? At whose command does the first breath go forth? At whose wish do we utter this speech? What god directs the eye, or the ear?' The wise answers our questions with a single word -- 'Shiva', But Who is he ? What is he ? Please explain to us about 'Shiva'.


The Teacher replies: 'Shiva is the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, the speech of speech, the breath of breath, and the eye of the eye. When freed (from the senses) the wise, on departing from this world, become immortal.

The eye does not go thither, nor speech, nor mind. We do not know, we do not understand, how any one can teach about 'Shiva'. ' Lord Shiva is different from the known, at the same time Shiva is also above the unknown, thus we have heard from those of old, who taught us this.That which is not expressed by speech and by which speech is expressed, that alone know as 'Shiva', not that which people here worship. That which does not think by mind, and by which, they say, mind is thought, that alone know as SHIVA, not that which people here worship. That which does not see by the eye, and by which one sees (the work of) the eyes, that alone know as SHIVA, not that which people here worship.That which does not hear by the ear, and by which the ear is heard, that alone know as SHIVA, not that which people here worship. That which does not breathe by breath, and by which breath is drawn, that alone know as SHIVA, not that which people here worship.

If you think: "I know Shiva well," then surely you know but little of Its form; you know only Its form as conditioned by man or by the gods. Therefore SHIVA, even now, is worthy of your inquiry. Lord Shiva is known when he is realised in every state of mind; for by such Knowledge one attains Immortality. By Atman one obtains strength; by Knowledge, Immortality . If a man knows Atman(Shiva) here, he then attains the true goal of life. If he does not know It here, a great destruction awaits him. Having realised SHIVA,the Self in every being, the wise relinquish the world and become immortal.

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Lord Rudra --- The Heart of Rishi Śvetāśvatara.

Śvetāśvatara Upanishad was attributed to a sage called "Shvetashvatara" or to his line of ancient spiritual teachers. The name "Shvetashvatara" is not uncommon in vedic literature. It means "White Mule". The Mule was a prized animal in ancient vedic India. A person who owns a white horse is called "Shvetashva" and one who owns a white mule can be called "Shvetashvatara". One of Arjuna's names in the epic Mahabharata is "Shvetashva." In the Rigveda, too, we find a sage's name as "Shyavashva," meaning "One who owns a black horse."


" Sage Shvetashvatara got this knowledge of Brahman, which is very sacred and revered by many great sages, through his penance and through God's grace, and he taught it very well to his disciples." ( Śvetāśvatara Upanishad VI-21)

From the above verse, it is clear that the seer of the upanishad is Rishi Svetasvatara.


Vaishnavite attacks:

The vaishnavites quote several verses of the upanishad in their respective treatises in support of their claims. The special feature of the Upanishad is the prominent conception of Devotion or Bhakti. In other Upanishads, the concept of Bhakti is indirectly voiced in the form of Upasana, but here, leaving no room for guesswork, it is explicitly mentioned. The word para-bhakti is explicitly used at the end of the sixth chapter. There are many words which voice submission to God or Brahman (words such as Sharanam, Prapadye, etc.). This concept of devotion later found profound expression in the Bhakti Sutras and other treatises on Bhakti. So the vaishnava acharyas quote the verses from Svetasvatara upanishad in support if their 'Bhakti' doctrine. Of course, they can do so.

But unfortunately, Some vaishnavas are over enthusiastic and try to claim that Rishi Svetasvatara was not a worshipper of Lord Shiva. They even say that Rishi Svetasvatara used the word 'Rudra' as an epithet of Lord Vishnu but not to refer 'Rudra' ( a demi-god in their view) of vedas. But such useless ramblings only bring disgrace to the vaishnava sect. A careful analysis of both Śvetāśvatara Upanishad and vedas prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the Rudra of Śvetāśvatara Upanishad and the Rudra of Vedas are one and the same. it is really foolish to think that Rishi Svetasvatara used the word 'Rudra' to refer someone else other than vedik Rudra.


Rudra of Śvetāśvatara Upanishad is none other than Rudra of vedas.

Actually, most of the people do not know the fact that several mantras used in Śvetāśvatara Upanishad were actually adapted from Veda samhitas. That's why the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad is popular as 'Mantra Upanishad' . The hymns in praise of Rudra in Śvetāśvatara Upanishad were actually taken from Samhita portions of Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvana Veda.


1)

yo devo agnau yo’psu
yo viśvaṃ bhuvanam āviveśa
ya oṣadhīṣu yo vanaspatiṣu
tasmai devāya namo namaḥ ( Śvetāśvatara Upanishad II-17 )


The Self—luminous Lord, who is fire, who is in water, who has entered into the whole world, who is in plants, who is in trees— to that Lord let there be adoration! Yea, let there be adoration!


The above mantra was actually adapted from Yajurveda Taittiriya Samhita. The verse is addressed to Rudra. The verse describes the omnipresence of Lord Rudra. It says that Rudra is the indweller of elements of nature and beings as well. So it is clear that the Rudra of Śvetāśvatara Upanishad is none otherthan lord Rudra of Vedas.

Adapted from:

Yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oshhadhishhu
Yo rudro vishva bhuvanaaavivesha tasmai rudraya namo astu (YV 5:5:9-i )

MEANING: The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage.



2)

eko hi rudro na dvitīyāya tasthur
ya imāṃl lokān īśata īśanībhiḥ
pratyaṅ janāṃs tiṣṭhati sañcukocānta-kāle
saṃsṛjya viśvā bhuvanāni gopāḥ ( SV Up III-2)

Meaning : Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time.


The above verse clearly says that Rudra is truly one. Rishi Svetasvatara reasserts "Ekam eva advitiyam Brahma". This verse which proclaims the absoluteness of Lord Rudra was also adapted from Taittiriya samhita. The verse clearly refutes the vaishnavite claims that Rudra is a demi-god and subordinate to Vishnu. Lord Rudra is not a demi god but lord Rudra is Absolute brahman who is beyond the comprehension of human minds. Vedas testify the absoluteness of Lord Rudra. This verse also makes it clear that Rudra of Śvetāśvatara Upanishad is none otherthan lord Rudra of Vedas.

Adapted from:

Eka eva rudra na dvitīyāya tasthur ( Yajurveda 1:8:6 d)

ie., Rudra is truly one for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second.



3)

viśvataś cakṣur uta viśvato-mukho
viśvato-bāhur uta viśvatas-pāt
saṃ6 bāhubhyāṃ dhamati sampatatrair
dyāv-ābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ ( Sv Up III-3)

His eyes are everywhere, His faces everywhere, His arms everywhere, everywhere His feet. He it is who endows men with arms, birds with feet and wings and men likewise with feet. Having produced heaven and earth, this God (deva ekaḥ) remains as their non—dual manifester.



yā te rudra śivā tanūr aghorā’pāpa-kāśinī
tayā nas tanuvā śantamayā giriśantābhicākaśīh ( Sv Up III-5)

Lord Rudra, you who dwell on Mount Kailas and who confer happiness, by that
form of yours which is not terrible, which will not injure us, and which is highly
auspicious, behold and illuminate us.


The above verse of Svetasvatara upanishad asks Rudra to shower his blessings in auspicious form. This verse is like a jolt upon those vaishnavas who claim that Rudra of svetasvatara upanishad is different from Rudra of vedas whom the advaitins and Shaivates worship. This verse is taken 'AS-IT-IS' from the popular Sri Rudram portion of Yajurveda. The Vaishnavites often say that Rudra,who is worshiped by Advaitins and shaivates by chanting Rudram, is a demi-god and subordinate to Vishnu. So they say that the Rudra of Śvetāśvatara upanishad is Vishnu but not Rudra of Shaivates. Such senseless claims of vaisnavas are rebutted by this verse. If Śvetāśvatara maharshi's Rudra is different from Shaivates' Rudra then why did he take this mantra "AS-IT-IS" from Sri Rudram ? if Śvetāśvatara maharshi want to distinguish between his Rudra and Shaivates' Rudra then he wouldn't have quoted from Sri Rudram at all.


Adapted from:

yā te rudra śivā tanūr aghorā’pāpa-kāśinī
tayā nas tanuvā śantamayā giriśantābhicākaśīh ( YV Taittiriya Samhita IV-5-1-c)



4)

yābhiṣuṃ giriśanta haste bibharṣy astave
śivāṃ giritra tāṃ kuru mā hiṃsīḥ puruṣaṃ jagat ( SV Up III-6)

My Lord who dwells on Mount Kailas and confers gladness to all! You, who fulfills
your vow of protecting all who serve you and take refuge in you; that arrow of
yours which you hold ready to let fly, withhold it and make it tranquil and
auspicious.


The above verse is once again a jolt upon such vaishnavas. Because this verse is also taken 'AS-IT-IS' from Sri Rudram portion of yajurveda. If Śvetāśvatara maharshi's Rudra is different from Shaivates' Rudra then why did he take this mantra "AS-IT-IS" from Sri Rudram ? if Śvetāśvatara maharshi want to distinguish between his Rudra and Shaivates' Rudra then he wouldn't have quoted from Sri Rudram at all. Of course, there are a category of vaishnavas who conveniently changes their color just like chameleon. They argue that the Sri Rudram portion of Vedas are refering to Narayana but not Rudra of Shaivates. This is really a funny claim. it is something similar like 'Vishnu of vaishnavas is not same as Vishnu of Vishnu puran or pancharatra agama'. The shaivates are not bothered about any other Rudra whom the Vaishnavites are referring to. For Shaivates, God is 'Rudra' who is eulogized in Sri Rudram, Who is eulogized in Rigveda samhita with name 'Rudra', Who is eulogized in Atharvana veda with names 'Rudra' 'Sarva' Bhava' 'vratya' skambha...etc, Who is eulogized in Brahmanas as 'Mahadeva' , Who is eulogized in Aranyakas, who is eulogized in kena upanishad as Lord of Uma hymavati (umapati). who is eulogized as 'Maheswara', 'Parameswara', 'iswara' , 'Hara', 'Shiva' 'Ishana' in Svetasvatara upanishad. Shaivates are unaware of any other 'Rudra' whom these vaishnavas are referring.

Adapted from :

yābhiṣuṃ giriśanta haste bibharṣy astave
śivāṃ giritra tāṃ kuru mā hiṃsīḥ puruṣaṃ jagat ( YV Taittiriya samhita IV-5-1 d)


5)

tvaṃ strī pumān asi
tvaṃ kumāra uta vā kumārī
tvaṃ jīrṇo daṇḍena vañcasi
tvaṃ jāto bhavasi viśvato-mukhaḥ ( SV Up IV-3)

Meaning: Thou art a woman, and a man; thou art a damsel and a boy.
Grown old thou totterest with a staff, new-born thou lookest every way.


The above verse describes Lord Rudra as everyone and everything. But this verse is adapted from the Skambha Suktam of Atharvana Veda samhita. 'Skambha' means 'pillar'. Lord Rudra appeared as pillar without begining or ending. Both Hari and Brahma failed to know the origin and end of skambha. 'Linga' is a symbol of Skambha.

Adapted From:

tváṃ strī́ tváṃ púmān asi tváṃ kumārá utá vā kumārī́||
tváṃ jīrṇó daṇḍéna vañcasi tváṃ jātó bhavasi viśvátomukhaḥ (Atharva Veda Śamhita 10,8.27)



6)

yo devānām adhipo
yasmin lokā adhiśritāḥ
ya īśe asya dvipadaś catuṣpadaḥ
kasmai devāya haviṣā vidhema ( SV Up IV-13 )

Meaning:
He who is the sovereign of the gods, in whom the worlds find their support, who rules over all two—footed and four—footed beings—let us serve that God, radiant and blissful, with an oblation.



Here Śvetāśvatara maharshi calls Rudra is called as Lord of both two-footed and four-footed. (ya īśe asya dvipadaś catuṣpadaḥ). This epithet is not a new one. In Veda samhitas, Rudra is always adressed as the lord of both two-footed and four-footed. Rudra is addressed as Lord of two-footed and four-footed for more than 100 times. So from this, it is clear that Rudra of Svetasvatara and Rudra of Vedas are both one and the same.

Adapted from:

bhávāśarvau manvé vāṃ tásya vittaṃ yáyor vām idáṃ pradíśi yád virócate
yā́v asyéśāthe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ ( Athava veda IV-28-1)

O Bhava and Sarva, I am devoted to you. Take note of that, you under whose control, is all this which shines (the visible universe)! You rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, you, Deliver us from grief and trouble.


yáyor vadhā́n nā́papádyate káś canā́ntár devéṣūtá mā́nuṣeṣu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ ( Athava veda IV-28-5)

You from whose blows no one either among gods or men escapes; you who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.



7)

sūkṣmātisūkṣmaṃ kalilasya madhye
viśvasya sraṣṭāram aneka-rūpam
viśvasyaikaṃ pariveṣṭitāraṃ
jñātvā śivaṃ śāntim atyantam eti ( SV Up IV-14 )

Finer beyond fineness. He hath hidden him in the midmost of this hustling chaos. He hath created this universe by taking many figures and as the One He encompasseth it around and girdeth it; having known Shiva, the Blessed One, man goeth to unutterable peace


The above verse explicitly identifies Lord Rudra with Shiva. The words " jñātvā śivaṃ " clearly says that the absolute is to be known or realised as SHIVA.,then only one can have supreme peace. If Lord Rudra is not 'Shiva' of Shaivates then why is Śvetāśvatara Maharshi saying that the absolute is to be known as 'Shiva'. (jñātvā śivaṃ) ?



ghṛtāt paraṃ maṇḍam ivātisūkṣmaṃ
jñātvā śivaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍham
viśvasyaikaṃ pariveṣṭitāraṃ
jñātvā devaṃ mucyate sarva-pāśaiḥ ( SV Up IV-16)

As the rare and fine cream in clarified butter, and it is richer than the butter, so Shiva the Blessed One hath hidden Him in every one of all His creatures; but as the One He encompasseth this whole world and girdeth it around. Know God and thou breakest every bondage.


Here again Rishi Śvetāśvatara telling us to realise that, it is Shiva who resides in the hearts of all beings. (jñātvā śivaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍham ).



8)

yadā’tamas tan na divā na rātrir
na san na cāsac chiva eva kevalaḥ
tad akṣaraṃ tat savitur vareṇyaṃ
prajñā ca tasmāt prasṛtā purāṇī (SV Up IV-18)

When there is no darkness of ignorance, there is no day or night, neither being nor non—being; SHIVA alone exists. That immutable Reality is the meaning of "That"; It is adored by the Sun. From It has proceeded the ancient wisdom.


Oh... here once again !! Rishi Śvetāśvatara proclaimed "Shiva eva kevalaḥ" ie., Shiva alone exists. if Svetasvatara Rishi's Lord Rudra is different from the Shiva of Shaivates why is he using the word 'Shiva' again and again ?


9)

ajāta ity evaṃ kaścid bhīruḥ prapadyate
rudra yat te dakṣiṇaṃ mukhaṃ tena māṃ pāhi nityam ( SV Up IV-21)

It is because Thou, O Lord, art birthless, that some rare souls, frightened by birth and death, take refuge in Thee. O Rudra, may Thy benign face protect me for ever!


Here Maharshi Śvetāśvatara says that only rare souls take refuge(prapadyate) of Rudra. He is asking Rudra's bengin face (dakṣiṇaṃ mukhaṃ) to protect forever. Here Rishi takes refugee of Shiva's bengin form ie., Dakshina murthy. Rudra has both Ghora and Aghora forms.

10)

mā nas toke tanaye mā na āyuṣi
mā no goṣu mā na aśveṣu rīriṣaḥ
vīrān mā no rudra bhāmito
vadhīr haviṣmantaḥ sadāmit tvā havāmahe ( SV Up IV-22)


O Rudra, do not, in Thy wrath, destroy our children and grand—children. Do not destroy our lives; do not destroy our cows or horses; do not destroy our strong servants. For we invoke Thee always, with oblations, for our protection.


The above verse is also taken 'AS IT IS' from Sri Rudram portion of Yajurveda. Here Rudra is asked to show mercy upon the progency. It is typical to Rudra in vedas. If Lord Rudra of Svetasvatara maharshi is different from the Rudra of vedas, why has he taken Sri Rudram verse 'AS IT IS' ? So it is very clear that Rudra of Shaivates and Rudra of Svetasvatara Upanishad are one and the same.

Adapted from:

Manastoke tanaye ma na ayushhi ma no goshhu ma no ashveshhu ririshhah
Viranma no rudra bhamitoavadhi rhavishhmanto namasa vidhema te ( Yajur veda TS IV-5-10-f)

Lord Rudra! Getting angry at our transgressions hurts not only our children, our
sons in particular, but also our cattle and horses, and our warriors.
Making offerings into the sacred fire, we shall serve and calm you by our
Namaskars (salutations).


Verses which explicitly identifies Lord Rudra with Shaivate names.

kṣaraṃ pradhānam amṛtākṣaraṃ haraḥ ( SV Up I-10)
ie., prakriti is perishable but Hara is imperishable.


jñātvā devaṃ sarva-pāśāpahāniḥ ( SV Up I-11)

jñātvā devaṃ mucyate sarva-pāśaiḥ ( SV Up II- 15 )
By knowing the deity all pashas ie., Bondages will be gone.

ya eko jālavān īśata īśanībhiḥ sarvāṃl lokān īśata īśanībhiḥ ( SV Up III-1)

eko hi rudro na dvitīyāya tasthur ya imāṃl lokān īśata īśanībhiḥ (SV Up III-2)

yo devānāṃ prabhavaś codbhavaś ca
viśvādhipo rudro maharṣiḥ
hiraṇyagarbhaṃ janayāmāsa pūrvaṃ
sa no buddhyā śubhayā saṃyunaktu (SV Up III-4)

yā te rudra śivā tanūr aghorā’pāpa-kāśinī
tayā nas tanuvā śantamayā giriśantābhicākaśīhi (SV Up III-5)

yābhiṣuṃ giriśanta haste bibharṣy astave
śivāṃ giritra tāṃ kuru mā hiṃsīḥ puruṣaṃ jagat (SV Up III-6)

sunirmalām imāṃ prāptim īśāno jyotir avyayaḥ ( SV Up III-12)

sarvasya prabhum īśānaṃ sarvasya śaraṇaṃ bṛhat( SV Up III-17)

māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ ca maheśvaram ( SV Up IV-10)

tam īśānaṃ varadaṃ devam īḍyaṃ (SV Up IV-11)

ya īśe asya dvipadaś catuṣpadaḥ kasmai devāya haviṣā vidhema ( SV Up IV-13)

jñātvā śivaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍham ( SV Up IV-16)

na san na cāsac chiva eva kevalaḥ ( SV Up IV-18)

ajāta ity evaṃ kaścid bhīruḥ prapadyate
rudra yat te dakṣiṇaṃ mukhaṃ tena māṃ pāhi nityam ( SV Up IV - 21)

mā nas toke tanaye mā na āyuṣi
mā no goṣu mā na aśveṣu rīriṣaḥ
vīrān mā no rudra bhāmito
vadhīr haviṣmantaḥ sadāmit tvā havāmahe ( SV Up IV-22)

bhāva-grāhyam anīḍākhyaṃ bhāvābhāva-karaṃ śivam ( SV Up V-14)

tam īśvarāṇāṃ paramaṃ maheśvaraṃ ( SV Up VI-7)

ya īśe’sya jagato nityam eva nānyo hetur vidyata īśanāya ( SV Up VI-17)


All the above mentioned verses clearly indicate that Rudra of Svetasvatara Upanishad and Rudra of vedas are one and the same. Rishi Svetasvatara devoted himself heart and soul to Lord Rudra. He was a devotee of Lord Shiva. He worshiped 'Hara'. He surrendered to 'Maheswara'. He took refuge of Ishana alone. By surrendering to Pashupati he broke all Paashaas(Bondage) and finally attained salvation by the grace of Lord Rudra. It is really unfair on the part of Vaishnavas to deny the True heart of Svetasvatara Maharshi.

Svetasvatara worshiped Lord Shiva who is beyond form and name. He did Rudropasana. He meditated on the bengin aspect of Lord Rudra. He realised that all gods including Vishnu were created by Lord Rudra alone. Rudra alone bestowed powers upon the gods. He called Rudra with various names like Shiva,Maheswara,Hara,ishana,pashupati,Parameswara..etc. In the Upanishad , he adapted Sri Rudram mantras. All these things clearly prove beyond any reasonable doubt that Rudra of Svetasvatara upanishad and Rudra of Vedas are one and the same.

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Nila Rudra Upanishad


Nīla rudra is part of the Atharvana veda -paippalāda saṃhitā (sūkta 3 of kāṇḍa 14). It is also considered as a upaniṣad of the early pāśupatas equivalent to the śvetāśvatara of the kṛṣṇa yajurveda. In śrauta traditions of the atharvaṇas the brahmā recites the sūkta mentally, standing beside the yajamāna, when the fifth layer of the altar for the soma ritual was completed.

apaśyaṃ tvāvarohantaṃ divitaḥ pṛthivīma ava .
apaśyama asyantaṃ rudraṃ nīlagrīvaṃ śikhaṇḍinaṃ .. 1

Om. Thee I beheld in thy descending down from the heavens to the earth, I saw Rudra, the Terrible, the azure-throated, the peacock-feathered, as he hurled.


diva ugro .avārukṣaḥ pratyaṣṭhā bhūmyāma adhi .
janāsaḥ paśyatemaṃ nīlagrīvaṃ vilohitaṃ .. 2

Fierce he came down from the sky, he stood facing me on the earth as its lord; the people behold a mass of strength, azure-throated, scarlet-hued.


eṣa aitya avīrahā rudro jalāṣa bheṣajī .
vi te kṣepama anīnaśada vātīkāro vya etu te .. 3

This that cometh is he that destroyeth evil, Rudra the Terrible, born of the tree that dwelleth in the waters; let the globe of the storm winds come too, that destroyeth for thee all things of evil omen.


namaste bhava bhāmāya namaste bhava manyave .
namaste astu bāhubhyāma uto ta iṣave namaḥ .. 4

Salutation to thee who bringeth the world into being, salutation to thee, the passionate with mighty wrath. Salutation be to thy arms of might, salutation be to thy angry shaft.


yāma iṣuṃ giriśanta haste bibharśya astave .
śivāma giriśritāma kṛṇu mā himsīḥ puruṣāna mama .. 5

The arrow thou bearest in thy hand for the hurling, O thou that liest on the mountains, make an arrow of blessing, O keeper of the hills, let it not slay my armed men.

śivena vacasā tvā giriśāchā vadāmasi .
yathā nasa sarvama ija jagada ayakṣmaṃ sumano asata .. 6

With fair speech, O mountain-dweller, we sue to thee in the assembly of the folk, that the whole world may be for us a friendly and sinless place.

yā ta iṣuśa śivatamā śivaṃ babhūva te dhanuḥ .
śivā śaravyā yā tava tayā no mṛlda jīvase .. 7

That thy arrow which is the kindliest of all and thy bow which is well omened and that thy quiver which beareth blessing, by that thou livest for us, O lord of slaughter.

yā te rudra śivā tanūra aghorāpāpakāśinī .
tayā nasa tanvā śantamayā giriśantābhi cākaśaḥ .. 8

That thy body, O terrible One, which is fair and full of kindness and destroyeth sin, not thy shape of terror, in that thy body full of peace, O mountaineer, thou art wont to be seen among our folk.


namo .astu nīlaśikhaṇḍāya sahasrākṣāya vājine .
atho ye asya satvānasa tebhyo .ahama akaraṃ namaḥ .. 9

namāṃsi ta āyudhāyānātatāya dhṛṣṇave .
ubhābhyāma akaraṃ namo bāhubhyāṃ tava dhanvane .. 10

pramu¤ca dhanvanaḥ parya ubhayora ārtnyora jyāṃ .
yāśa ca te hasta iṣavaḥ parā tā bhagavo vapaḥ .. 11

avatatya dhanusa tvaṃ sahasrākṣa śateṣudhe .
niśīrya śalyānāṃ mukhā śivo naśa śaṃbhura ā cara .. 12

asau yasa tāmro aruṇa uta babhrura vilohitaḥ .
ye ceme abhito rudrā dikṣu śritāsa sahasraśo .avaiṣāṃ helda īmahe .. 13

This Aruna of the dawn that is tawny and copper-red and scarlet-hued, and these thy Violent Ones round about that dwell in the regions in their thousands, verily, it is these whom we desire.

adarśaṃ tvāvarohantaṃ nīlagrīvaṃ vilohitaṃ .
uta tvā gopā adṛśanna uta tvodahāryaḥ .
uto tvā viśvā bhūtāni tasmai dṛṣṭāya te namaḥ .. 14

Let the blue‐necked one render us happy, the one who rises in crimson splendour, whom the cowherds, the water‐maidens and all the creatures in the world can see.Let Him grant Happiness to us.


vijyaṃ dhanuśa śikhaṇḍino viśalyo bāṇavāna uta .
aneśanna asyeṣavaśa śivo asya niṣaṅgathiḥ .. 15

Let the bow of śikhaṇḍin, Rudra of the matted locks, be without its string. Let there be no arrows in His quiver. Let His arrows lose their capacity to strike and pierce. Let the sheath of his sword be not removed.

pari te dhanvano hetira asmāna vṛṇaktu viśvataḥ .
atho ya iṣudhisa tavāre asmina ni dhehi taṃ .. 16

Let the arrow of Your bow spare us in all ways. And place your quiver of arrows far away from us.

yā te hetira mīḍhuSṭama haste babhūva te dhanuḥ .
tayā tvaṃ viśvato asmāna ayakṣmayā pari bhuja .. 17

O! Supreme lord who showers mercy! Protect us from all wordly troubles with the weapons and bow in your hands, which are not for hurting us.


Shri Aurobindo's Interpretation :

1. Apaśyam, I beheld. The speaker is the author of the Upanishad, a prince of the Aryan people, as we see from the fifth verse. He records a vision of Rudra descending from the heavens to the earth.

Avaḥ, down, is repeated for the sake of vividness. In the second half of the śloka the Murti or image in which he beheld the Divine Manifestation is described, Rudra, the God of might and wrath, the neck and throat blue, peacock's feather as a crest, in the act of hurling a shaft.



2. He proceeds to describe the descent. He descended fiercely, that is, with wrath in his face, gesture and motion and stood facing the seer, pratyaṣṭhāt, on the earth, and over it, adhi, in a way expressive of command or control. This image of Divine Power, seen by the prince in Yoga, becomes visible to the people in general as a mass of strength, maha, scarlet in colour, deep blue in the neck and throat. Maha is strength, bulk, greatness. The manifestation is that of wrath and might. The people see Rudra as a mass of brilliance, scarlet-ringed and crested with blue, the scarlet in Yoga denoting violent passion of anger or desire, the blueśraddhā, bhakti, piety or religion.



3. Rudra, whom we know as the slayer of evil, comes. The Rajarshi describes him as born of the tree that is in the waters. Bheṣa is by philology identical with the Latin ficus or fig-tree, aśvattha. The aśvattha is the Yogic emblem of the manifested world, as in the Gita, the tree of the two birds in the Shwetashwatara Upanishad, the single tree in the blue expanse of the Song of Liberation. The jala is the āpah or waters from which the world rises. The Rishi then prays that thevātī mass of winds of which Rudra is lord and which in the tempest of their course blow away all calamity, such as pestilence etc. may come with him.



4. In the fourth verse he salutes the God. Rudra is the Supreme Ishwara, Creator of the World, He is the dreadful, wrathful and destroying Lord, swift to slay and punish. Bhāma is passionate anger, and the word manyu denotes a violent disturbed state of mind, passion, either of grief or of anger. Bhāmāyamanyavetherefore means, one who is full of the passion of violent anger. Rudra is being saluted as a God of might and wrath, it is therefore to the arms as the seat of strength and the arrow as the weapon of destruction that salutation is made.



5. Rudra is coming in a new form of wrath and destruction in which the Aryans are not accustomed to see him. Apprehensive of the meaning of this vision, the King summons the people and in assembly prayer is offered to Rudra to avert possible calamity. The shaft is lifted to be hurled from the bow; it is prayed that it may be turned into a shaft of blessings not of wrath. In this verse the Prince prays the God not to slay his men, meaning evidently, the armed warriors of the clan

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