Friday, September 18, 2009

Atharvana Veda - Hymns in praise of Bhava & Sarva

Bhava and Sarva are the names of Lord Rudra. Lord Rudra not only created the worlds but also entered into it. He entered into pancha bhutas,(ie., Earth,Air,Water,Sky and Fire). he is Indweller (Antaryamin) of all.



tamabravīdbhavo 'sīti tadyadasya tannāmākarotparjanyastadrūpamabhavatparjanyo
vai bhavaḥ parjanyāddhīdaṃ sarvam bhavati so 'bravījjyāyānvā ato 'smi dhehyeva me nāmeti
( Satapata Brahmana 6.1.3.[15])

Meaning:
. He said to him, 'Thou art Bhava.' And because he gave him that name, Parjanya (the rain-god) became suchlike ; for Bhava is Parjanya,since everything here comes (bhavati) from Prajanya.He said, * Surely, I am mightier than that :give me yet a name !


Since everything comes( in sankrit, "Bhavati") from Lord Shiva , he is called with name 'Bhava".

Similarly,

tamabravītsarvo 'sīti tadyadasya tannāmākarodāpastadrūpamabhavannāpo vai sarvo
'dbhyo hīdaṃ sarvaṃ jāyate so 'bravījjyāyānvā ato 'smi dhehyeva me nāmeti ( Satapata Btahmana 6.1.3.[11])


Meaning:

He said to him, 'Thou art Sarva.' And because he gave him that name, the waters became suchlike, for Sarva is the waters, inasmuch as from the water everything (sarva) here is produced. He said, ' Surely, I am mightier than that : give me yet a name !

Since, Everything(in sanskrit - "sarva") is produced & pervaded by Lord Shiva , He is called with name "Sarva".

In Atharvana Veda, there are two different 'Sukams' which glorify Bhava&Sarva. These Hymns clearly establish the Supreme sovereignity of Lord Rudra over the creation and gods as well. In the very first verse of the Suktam , the Rishi says that Everything that shines in the universe because of lord Rudra only. He is the lord of everything that Shines (ie., lord of every being that has consciousness).
In the suktam, At the end of every verse, the Rishi says that lord Rudra rules both Two footed and Four footed. The samething is told in svetasvatara upanishad as well.

yo devānām adhipo
yasmin lokā adhiśritāḥ
ya īśe asya dvipadaś catuṣpadaḥ
kasmai devāya haviṣā vidhema ( IV-13; Svetasvatara upanishad)

Meaning:
He who is the sovereign of the gods, in whom the worlds find their support, who rules over all two—footed and four—footed beings—let us serve that God, radiant and blissful, with an oblation.

In the Second verse, the Rishi says that Lord Rudra is the Lord(isa) of all that is near and also all that is very far as well.

In the Third verse, The Rishi says that Lord Rudra slayed Vritra. As per Vedas, Vritra was slayed by Indra. But here it is said that Lord Rudra slayed Vritra. The confusion arises for ordinary minds who believe in duality. but, the Rishis intention is that Lord Indra is also a form of Lord Rudra only. The Rishi realised that Lord Rudra is truly Brahman. Hence, he saw, from blade of grass to Lord Brahma, everything as a manifestation of lord Rudra. Rishi Aghora,the mantra drashta of Satarudriyam portion of Yajurveda also saw rudra even in dogs,thieves,rain cloud,sand,gamblers,waters,fishermen,trees,stones...etc. They practically experienced Brahman(Rudra). They proclaimed " Sarvam Khalvidam Brahma ".

In the fith verse, The Rishi, regarding the lordship of Lord Rudra over the gods and the creation, says that NONE CAN ESCAPE FROM THE ARROWS OF RUDRA. EVEN GODS CANNOT ESCAPE.

In the The tenth verse of Atharva Veda XI-2 , the seer says that All the four directions belong to Lord Rudra. The Heaven(dyáus), the Earth(pr̥thivī́), the Space(àntárikṣam) are under the sole Lordship of Rudra . All the beings that breath and which has Soul belongs to Rudra.(távedáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇát) In fact, he is isha(lord) of all.

In the sixteenth verse, the Rishi says that everyone should Worship Lord Rudra in the Morning,
Afternoon,Evening and even during the night. This shows that Lord Rudra is not an ordinary god who was remembered during specific occasions only. But,Lord Rudra is 'Iswara'. so, he must be worshiped by all at all times. In spite of it, Some fanatics ,like Vaishnavas, often demean Lord Shiva.

In the seventeenth Verse, The Rishi Urges people not to offend Lord Rudra with their tongues. But, still, even now we can see several wicked vaishnavas who criticise Lord Shiva.

In the Twentyfifth verse, the Rishi describes that Lord Rudra can see everything that is happening here on earth with just one glance. He need not even move. By mere will everything happens. The Rishi says that Rudra is omniscient.

In the Twentyseventh verse, the Rishi describes the omnipresence of Lord Rudra. He says that Rudra is the Ruler of Heaven, Ruler of Earth. Lord Rudra pervades everything.

Atharvana Veda IV-28 :

bhávāśarvau manvé vāṃ tásya vittaṃ yáyor vām idáṃ pradíśi yád virócate
yā́v asyéśāthe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 1

O Bhava and Sarva, I am devoted to you. Take note of that, ye under whose control, is all this which shines (the visible universe)! Ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures,Deliver us, ye twain, from grief and trouble.

yáyor abhyabhvá utá yád dūré cid yáu viditā́v iṣubhŕ̥tām ásiṣṭhau
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 2

Ye to whom belongs all that is near by, yea, all that is far; ye who are known as the most skilful archers among bowmen; ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

sahasrākṣáu vr̥trahánā huveháṃ dūrégavyūtī stuvánn emy ugráu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 3

The thousand-eyed slayers of Vritra both do I invoke. I go praising the two strong gods (ugrau) whose pastures extend far. Ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

yā́v ārebhā́the bahú sākám ágre prá céd ásrāṣṭram abhibhā́ṃ jáneṣu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 4

Ye who, united, did undertake many (deeds) of old, and, moreover, did visit portents upon the. people; ye who rule all these two-footed and fourfooted creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

yáyor vadhā́n nā́papádyate káś canā́ntár devéṣūtá mā́nuṣeṣu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 5

Ye from whose blows no one either among gods or men escapes; ye who rule all these twofooted and fourfooted creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

yáḥ kr̥tyākŕ̥n mūlakŕ̥d yātudhā́no ní tásmin dhattaṃ vájram ugráu
yā́v asyéśathe dvipádo yáu cátuṣpadas táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 6

The sorcerer who prepares a spell, or manipulates the roots (of plants) against us, against him, ye strong gods, launch your thunderbolt! Ye who rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from grief and trouble.

ádhi no brūtaṃ pŕ̥tanāsūgrau sáṃ vájreṇa sr̥jataṃ yáḥ kimīdī́
stáumi bhavāśarváu nāthitó johavīmi táu no muñcatam áṃhasaḥ 7

Ye strong gods, favour us in battles, bring into contact with your thunderbolt the Kimîdin! I praise you, O Bhava and Sarva, call fervently upon you in distress: deliver us from grief and trouble.

Atharvana Veda XI-2:

bhávāśarvau mr̥ḍátaṃ mā́bhí yātaṃ bhū́tapatī páśupatī námo vām
prátihitām ā́yatāṃ mā́ ví srāṣṭaṃ mā́ no hiṃsiṣṭaṃ dvipádo mā́ cátuṣpadaḥ 1

O Bhava and Sarva, be merciful, do not attack (us); ye lords of beings, lords of cattle, reverence be to you twain! Discharge not your arrow even after it has been laid on (the bow), and has been drawn! Destroy not our bipeds and our quadrupeds!

śúne kroṣṭré mā́ śárīrāṇi kártam alíklavebhyo gŕ̥dhrebhyo yé ca kr̥ṣṇā́ aviṣyávaḥ
mákṣikās te paśupate váyāṃsi te vighasé mā́ vidanta 2

Prepare not our bodies for the dog, or the jackal; for the aliklavas, the vultures, and the black birds! Thy greedy insects, O lord of cattle (pasupate), and thy birds shall not get us to devour!

krándāya te prāṇā́ya yā́ś ca te bhava rópayaḥ
námas te rudra kr̥ṇmaḥ sahasrākṣā́yāmartya 3

Reverence we offer, O Bhava, to thy roaring, to thy breath, and to thy injurious qualities; reverence to thee, O Rudra, thousand-eyed, immortal!

purástāt te námaḥ kr̥ṇma uttarā́d adharā́d utá
abhīvargā́d divás páry antárikṣāya te námaḥ 4

We offer reverence to thee from the east, from the north, and from the -south; from (every) domain, and from heaven. Reverence be to thy atmosphere(antárikṣāya)!

múkhāya te paśupate yā́ni cákṣūṃṣi te bhava
tvacé rūpā́ya saṃdŕ̥śe pratīcī́nāya te námaḥ 5

To thy face, O lord of cattle, to thy eyes, O Bhava, to thy skin, to thy form, thy appearance, (and to thy aspect) from behind, reverence be!

áṅgebhyas ta udárāya jihvā́yā āsyā̀ya te
dadbhyó gandhā́ya te námaḥ 6

To thy limbs, to thy belly, to thy tongue, to thy mouth, to thy teeth, to thy smell (nose), reverence be!

ástrā nī́laśikhaṇḍena sahasrākṣéṇa vājínā
rudréṇārdhakaghātínā téna mā́ sám arāmahi 7

May we not conflict with Rudra, the archer with the dark crest, the thousand-eyed, powerful one, the slayer of Ardhaka!

sá no bhaváḥ pári vr̥ṇaktu viśváta ā́pa ivāgníḥ pári vr̥ṇaktu no bhaváḥ
mā́ no 'bhí māṃsta námo astv asmai 8

Bhava shall steer clear from us on all sides, Bhava shall steer clear from us, as fire from water! May he not bear malice towards us: reverence be to him!

catúr námo aṣṭakŕ̥tvo bhavā́ya dáśa kŕ̥tvaḥ paśupate námas te
távemé páñca paśávo víbhaktā gā́vo áśvāḥ púruṣā ajāváyaḥ 9

Four times, eight times, be reverence to Bhava, ten times be reverence to thee, O lord of cattle! To thy (charge) have been assigned these five (kinds of) cattle: cows, horses, men, goats and sheep.

táva cátasraḥ pradíśas táva dyáus táva pr̥thivī́ távedám ugrorv àntárikṣam
távedáṃ sárvam ātmanvád yát prāṇát pr̥thivī́m ánu 10

Thine, O strong god (ugra), are the four regions, thine the sky, thine the earth, and thine this broad atmosphere; thine is this all that has a spirit and has breath upon the earth.

urúḥ kóśo vasudhā́nas távāyáṃ yásminn imā́ víśvā bhúvanāny antáḥ
sá no mr̥ḍa paśupate námas te paráḥ kroṣṭā́ro abhibhā́ḥ śvā́naḥ paró yantv agharúdo vikeśyàḥ 11

Thine is this broad, treasure-holding receptacle within which all worlds are contained. Do thou spare us, O lord of cattle: reverence be to thee! Far from us shall go the jackals, evil omens, dogs; far shall go (the mourning women) who bewail rnisfortune with dishevelled hair!

dhánur bibharṣi háritaṃ hiraṇyáyaṃ sahasraghníṃ śatávadhaṃ śikhaṇḍin
rudrásyéṣuś carati devahetís tásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ 12

Thou, O crested (god), carriest in (thy hand), that smites thousands, a yellow, golden bow that slays hundreds; Rudra's arrow, the missile of the gods, flies abroad: reverence be to it, in whatever direction from here (it flies)!

yò 'bhíyāto niláyate tvā́ṃ rudra nicíkīrṣati
paścā́d anupráyuṅkṣe táṃ viddhásya padanī́r iva 13

The adversary who lurks and seeks to overcome thee, O Rudra, upon him thou dost fasten thyself from behind, as (the hunter) that follows the trail of a wounded (animal).

bhavārudráu sayújā saṃvidānā́v ubhā́v ugráu carato vīryā̀ya
tā́bhyāṃ námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ 14

Bhava and Rudra, united and concordant, both strong (ugrau), ye advance to deeds of heroism: reverence be to both of them, in whatever direction (they are) from here!

námas te astv āyaté námo astu parāyaté
námas te rudra tíṣṭhata ā́sīnāyotá te námaḥ 15

Reverence be to thee coming, reverence to thee going; reverence, O Rudra, be to thee standing, and reverence, also, to thee sitting!

námaḥ sāyáṃ námaḥ prātár námo rā́tryā námo dívā
bhavā́ya ca śarvā́ya cobhā́bhyām akaraṃ námaḥ 16

Let us pay our homage in the morning, during the day, in the evening, and at night – to the Lord who grants us life and who takes it away (Bhava/Sarva).

sahasrākṣám atipaśyáṃ purástād rudrám ásyantaṃ bahudhā́ vipaścítam
mópārāma jihváyéyamānam 17

Let us not with our tongue offend Rudra, who rushes on, thousand-eyed, overseeing all, who hurls (his shafts) forward, who is manifoldly wise!

śyāvā́śvaṃ kr̥ṣṇám ásitaṃ mr̥ṇántaṃ bhīmáṃ ráthaṃ keśínaḥ pādáyantam
pū́rve prátīmo námo astv asmai 18

We approach first the (god) that has dark horses, is black, sable, destructive, terrible, who casts down the car of Kesin: reverence be to him!

mā́ no 'bhí srā matyàṃ devahetíṃ mā́ naḥ krudhaḥ paśupate námas te
anyátrāsmád divyā́ṃ śā́khāṃ ví dhūnu 19

Do not hurl at us thy club, thy divine bolt; be not incensed at us, O lord of cattle! Shake over some other than us the celestial branch!

mā́ no hiṃsīr ádhi no brūhi pári ṇo vr̥ṅdhi mā́ krudhaḥ
mā́ tváyā sám arāmahi 20

Injure us not, interpose for us, spare us, be not angry with us! Let us not contend with thee!

mā́ no góṣu púruṣeṣu mā́ gr̥dho no ajāvíṣu
anyátrogra ví vartaya píyārūṇāṃ prajā́ṃ jahi 21

Do not covet our cattle, our men, our goats and sheep! Bend thy course elsewhere, O strong god (ugra), slay the offspring of the blasphemers!

yásya takmā́ kā́sikā hetír ékam áśvasyeva vŕ̥ṣaṇaḥ kránda éti
abhipūrváṃ nirṇáyate námo astv asmai 22

He whose missile, fever and cough, assails the single (victim), as the snorting of a stallion, who snatches away (his victims) one by one, to him be reverence!

yò 'ntárikṣe tíṣṭhati víṣṭabhitó 'yajvanaḥ pramr̥ṇán devapīyū́n
tásmai námo daśábhiḥ śákvarībhiḥ 23

He who dwells fixed in the atmosphere, smiting the blasphemers of the god that do not sacrifice, to him be reverence with ten sakvarî-stanzas!

túbhyam āraṇyā́ḥ paśávo mr̥gā́ váne hitā́ haṃsā́ḥ suparṇā́ḥ śakunā́ váyāṃsi
táva yakṣáṃ paśupate apsv àntás túbhyaṃ kṣaranti divyā́ ā́po vr̥dhé 24

For thee the wild beasts of the forest have been placed in the forest: flamingoes, eagles, birds of prey, and fowls. Thy spirit, O lord of cattle, is within the waters, to strengthen thee the heavenly waters flow.

\śiṃśumā́rā ajagarā́ḥ purīkáyā jaṣā́ mátsyā rajasā́ yébhyo ásyasi
ná te dūráṃ ná pariṣṭhā́sti te bhava sadyáḥ sárvāṃ pári paśyasi bhū́miṃ pū́rvasmād dhaṃsy úttarasmint samudré 25

The dolphins, great serpents (boas), purîkayas (water-animals), sea-monsters, fishes, ragasas at which thou shootest-there exists for thee, O Bhava, no distance, and no barrier. At a glance thou lookest around the entire earth; from the eastern thou slayest in the northern ocean.

mā́ no rudra takmánā mā́ viṣéṇa mā́ naḥ sáṃ srā divyénāgnínā
anyátrāsmád vidyútaṃ pātayaitā́m 26

Do not, O Rudra, contaminate us with fever, or with poison, or with heavenly fire: cause this lightning to descend elsewhere than upon us!

bhavó divó bhavá īśe pr̥thivyā́ bhavá ā́ papra urv àntárikṣam
tásyai námo yatamásyāṃ diśī̀táḥ 27

Bhava rules the sky, Bhava rules the earth; Bhava has filled the broad: atmosphere. Reverence be to him in whatever direction from here (he abides)!

bháva rājan yájamānāya mr̥ḍa paśūnā́ṃ hí paśupátir babhū́tha
yáḥ śraddádhāti sánti devā́ íti cátuṣpade dvipáde 'sya mr̥ḍa 28

O king Bhava, be merciful to thy worshipper, for thou art the lord of living beasts! He who believes the gods exist, to his quadruped and biped be merciful!

mā́ no mahā́ntam utá mā́ no arbhakáṃ mā́ no váhantam utá mā́ no vakṣyatáḥ
mā́ no hiṃsīḥ pitáraṃ mātáraṃ ca svā́ṃ tanvàṃ rudra mā́ rīriṣo naḥ 29

Slay neither our great nor our small; neither those of us that are riding, nor those that shall ride; neither our father, nor our mother. Cause no injury, O Rudra, to our own persons!

rudrásyailabakārébhyo 'saṃsūktagilébhyaḥ
idáṃ mahā́syebhyaḥ śvábhyo akaraṃ námaḥ 30

To Rudra's howling dogs, who swallow their food without blessing, who have wide jaws, I have made this obeisance.

námas te ghoṣíṇībhyo námas te keśínībhyaḥ
námo námaskr̥tābhyo námaḥ saṃbhuñjatī́bhyaḥ
námas te deva sénābhyaḥ svastí no ábhayaṃ ca naḥ 31

Reverence, O god, be to thy shouting hosts, reverence to thy long-haired, reverence to thy reverenced, reverence to thy devouring hosts! May well-being and security be to us!

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