Friday, December 26, 2008

What do Vedas say about Siva?

Rig veda
"Rudra by day, Rudra at night we honour with these our songs, the Universe's Father. Him great and lofty, blissful, undecaying let us call specially as the Sage impels us. " (Rigveda 6:49:10)
Here, Rudra is referred as ‘Universe’s Father’. The Sanskrit word used is ‘Bhuvanasya pitaH’ which means pitaH(father) of all Bhuvanas (worlds). Bhuvana includes all spiritual worlds. Even the Vaikunta( the abode of Vishnu) also called bhuvana.

tryambakam yajAmahe sugandhim pusti vardhanam
urvArukamiva bandhanAn mrtyormukshIya mAmrtAt
(Rigveda 7:59:12)
"We worship the fragrant Three-Eyed One, the Promoter of prosperity. May we be freed from the bondage of death as a cucumber from its stalk; But not from immortality".
THE ABOVE VERSE FROM VEDAS IS CALLED MAHA MRUTHYUMJAYA MANTRA. shiva is the only one who can grant liberation from cycle of birth and death.

“To Rudra bring these songs, whose bow is firm and strong, the self-dependent God with swiftly-flying shafts,The Wise, the Conqueror whom none may overcome, armed with sharp-pointed weapons: may he hear our call.”(Rigveda 7:46:1)
Here Rudra is referred as God who is self dependent and none can overcome Rudra. As he is self dependent, the vishnavites cannot claim that he derives his strength from Vishnu by quoting Rigveda 70.40.5.

The Maruts deck their beauty for thy glory, yea, Rudra! for thy birth fair, brightly-coloured.
That which was fixed as Visnu's loftiest station-therewith the secret of the Cows thou guardest (
Rigveda 5:3:3)

What does Yajur veda say about Rudra?

Taittariya samhita( 4.5 and 4.7 ), Yajurveda

High light:

The Rudraprasna starts withOM NAMO BHAGAVATE RUDRAYA’.


Vedas very rarely use the word ‘bhagavath’ . this word cannot be used to address demigods. Even Vishnu is not addressed with this ‘Bhagavath’ shabdh . we should not forget that Prabhupada in his BG-As it is, translated the word bhagavan as ‘Supreme personality of godhead’. All other mantras like om namo bhagavate vasudevaya..etc are not from vedas but from puranas only.
But we can see ‘om namo narayanaya’ in vedas. It doesn’t matter because in this Rudraprasna itself we can see Siva PANCHAKSHARI. Ie., Na Ma Si Va Ya

Namo bhavaya cha rudraya cha
namah sharvaya cha pashupataye cha
namo nilagrivaya cha shitikanthaya cha
namah kapardine cha vyuptakeshaya cha
namah sahasrakshaya cha shatadhanvane cha
namo girishaya cha shipivishhtaya cha
(Anuvaka 5)

Salutations to Him who is the source of all things. And to Him who is the destroyer of all ills. Salutations to the destroyer and to the protector of all beings in bondage. Salutations to Him whose throat is black and whose throat is also white. Salutations to Him of the matted locks, and to Him who is clean-shaven. Salutations to Him who has a Thousand eyes and a hundred bows. Salutations to Him who dwells on the mount and who is in the form of Shipivista (Vishnu).

In this anuvaka we can see the words like Bhavaya, pasupati.etc. Apart from this, we can see the word ‘Shipivista’. This word is not an ordinary word .it is used as an epithet of Vishnu on several occasions in yajurveda. This implies that Rudra appears as ‘Shipivista’. Here it is said that shiva performs three different activities (creation, protection and destruction) similarly, in the word ‘pasupati,’ ‘pasu’ implies jeevas and pati implies lord. Hence pasupati literally means lord of all pasu(jeevas). The concept of ‘Gopal’ was borrowed from Vedik ‘pasupati’. Both are metaphors.

Namo agriyaya cha prathamaya cha
nama ashave chajiraya cha
(Anuvaka 5)
“Salutations to Him who was before all things and who is foremost
Salutations to Him who pervades all and moves swiftly “

Namasteastu-bhavagan-vishvesvaraya-mahadevayatriyambakaya triupurantakaya trikalagni kalaya kalaagni Rudraya Nilakanthaya-mrutyunjayaya-sarveshvaraya-sadashivayaSriman mahadevaya Namah ( first Anuvaka ending )

Let my salutations be to that great God who is the Lord of the universes; the great God who has three eyes and who destroys Tripura, the three Asura cities. To that God who is the Dandhya time when the three sacred fires are lit; who is Rudra the fire that consumes the universe; whose throat is blue; who has conquered death; the Lord of all; the ever auspicious one; salutations to that glorious and great God."

“namo harikeshayopavitine pushhtanam pataye namo
namo bhavasya hetyai jagatam pataye namo
namo rudrayatatavine kshetranam pataye namo”
( second Anuvaka)

Salutations to Him who is always black-haired, who wears the yajnopavita (sacred thread); to him the Lord of the sleek, salutations. Salutations to Him the instrument that destroys Samsara (Ignorance); to the Lord of all the worlds, salutations. Salutations to Him who protects the world by the might of His drawn bow, to Rudra the destroyour of all miseries; to the Lord of the fields and sacred places, salutations
In this, we can observe two great words i.e., jagathaampati, and kshetranam pati. ‘jagataam pati’ means lord of all jagat(anything created is ‘jagat’ this includes heavens and abodes). Hence SIVA is JAGAPATI. Similarly, siva is kshetranaam pati. Please read Bhagavad gita. Chapter 13 for details on Ksetra-kshetrajnya . BG 13:23 upadrasta anumantacha barta bhokta maheswarah……. ‘Maheswara’ mentioned here is ‘Siva’ only. Because vedas proclaim that Rudra is ‘kshetra pati.’

Some ‘hare krsna’ stupid like ura444 often say that ‘Linga’ worship is not Vedik etc. but it is perfectly Vedik. Taittariya Aranyaka of Yajurveda gives us some mantras.
bhavÀyâ namaha
bhavalingÀyâ namaha
sarvÀyâ namaha
sarvalingÀyâ namaha
sivÀyâ namaha
sivalingÀyâ namaha
jvalÀyâ namaha
jvalalingÀyâ namaha
ÀtmÀyâ namaha
ÀtmalingÀyâ namaha
paramÀyâ namaha
paramalingÀyâ namaha
etathsomasyà suryâsyâ sarvalingam sthÀpâyâté pÀnimantram pavétram
( YajurVeda Taittariya Aranyaka 10:16:1 )

“I take refuge in Sadyojata. Verily I salute Sadyojata again and again. O Sadyojata, do not consign me to repeated birth; lead me beyond birth, into the state of bliss and liberation. I bow down to Him who is the source of transmigratory existence.” ( Yajurveda Taittariya Aranyaka 10:17:1)

“May the Supreme who is the ruler of all knowledge, ishana, controller of all created beings, the preserver of the Vedas and the one overlord of Hiranyagarbha, be benign to me. That Sadasiva I’m described thus and denoted by Pranava.” (Yajurveda Taittariya Aranyaka 10:21:1 )

“Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Reality, has become an androgynous Person in the form of Umamaheshvara, dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste and possessing uncommon eyes. Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe or whose form is the universe” (Yajurveda Taittariya Aranyaka 10:23:1)

“All this verily is Rudra. To Rudra who is such we offer our salutation. We salute again and again that Being, Rudra, who alone is the light and the Soul of creatures. The material universe the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such “ (Yajurveda Taittariya Aranyaka 10:24:1)

“We sing a hymn that confers on us happiness in the highest degree to Rudra who is worthy of praise, who is endowed with the highest knowledge, who rains objects to the worshippers most excellently, who is more powerful and who is dwelling in the heart. Indeed all this is Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such” (Yajurveda Taittariya Aranyaka 10:25:1)

The following Verse is popular as Rudra gayatri:

OM tatpurushàya vidmahe mahàdevàya dhimahi
tanno rudraþprachodayàt
(Yajurveda Taittariya Aranyaka 10:20:1)
May we know or realize the Supreme Person(purusha). For that, may we meditate upon Mahadeva and to that meditation may Rudra impel us


Let us now see what Upanishads say about siva. I classified Upanishads into three types.
Type 1 :
it is always advised to quote from primary Upanishads. So that the other person cannot refute these Upanishads. If he refutes then he is no more a VEDANTIN.
Mandukya Upanishad
Svetasvatara Upanishad
Isa Upanishad
Kena Upanishad

NOTE: Eventhough Svetasvatara Upanishad is not in top 10 List of Upanishads, it still holds a respectable position. It is treated as 11th Upanishad in order.
Svetasvatara upanishad is not Shaiva upanishad. Shaiva agamas were not even there at the time. Moreover, if this Upanishad is indeed a Shaiva Upanishad, other sects of Hinduism such as Vaishnavas wouldn't have quoted its verses/mantras as authority in their respective treatises. There are many words which voice submission to God or Brahman (words such as Sharanam, Prapadye, etc.). This concept of devotion later found profound expression in the Bhakti Sutras and other treatises on Bhakti.)

That which is without parts is the Fourth ( beyond A-U-M), beyond apprehension through ordinary means, the cessation of the phenomenal world, It is SIVAM( the auspicious) and ADVAITAM (the non-dual). Thus Om is certainly the Self. He who knows thus enters the Self by the Self.” (12 MANDUKYA UPANISHAD)

isavaasyam idam sarvam.... (1 sloka of isa upanishad)

Meaning: All this is pervaded by Isa (siva).

“Prakriti is perishable. Hara, the Lord, is immortal and imperishable. The non—dual Supreme Self rules both prakriti and the individual soul. Through constant meditation on Him, by union with Him, by the knowledge of identity with Him, one attains, in the end, cessation of the illusion of phenomena. "( 1:10 svetasvathara upanishad )

“Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time." ( 3:02 svetasvatara upsanishad )

“He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!" (3:04 svetasvatara upanishad )

“The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal "( 3:07 svetasvathara Upanishad)

“His eyes are everywhere, His faces everywhere, His arms everywhere, everywhere His feet. He it is who endows men with arms, birds with feet and wings and men likewise with feet. Having produced heaven and earth, He remains as their non—dual manifester”. ( 3:3 svetasvatara upanishad)

“All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks. He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all— pervading Bhagavan. Therefore He is the omnipresent and benign Lord”.( 3:11 svetasvatara upanishad)

“He, indeed, is the great Purusha, the Lord of creation, preservation and destruction, who inspires the mind to attain the state of stainlessness. He is the Ruler and the Light that is imperishable.” (3:12 svetaswatara upanishad)

No one can grasp Him above, across, or in the middle. There is no likeness of Him. His name is Great Glory (Mahad Yasah). (4:19 svetasvatara upanishad)

His form is not an object of vision; no one beholds Him with the eyes. They who, through pure intellect and the Knowledge of Unity based upon reflection, realise Him as abiding in the heart become immortal.(4:20 svetasvatara upanishad)

It is not female, it is not male, nor is it neuter. whatever body it takes, with that it becomes united( 5:10 svetasvatara upanishad)

By realising Him who is subtler than the subtlest who dwells in the midst of the chaos, who is the Creator of all things and is endowed with many forms, who is the non—dual Pervader of the universe by realising Him as 'Sivam' (auspicious) one attains the supreme peace.( 4:14 svetasvatara upanishad )

When there is no darkness of ignorance, there is no day or night, neither being nor non—being; the pure SIVA alone exists. That immutable Reality is the meaning of "That"; It is adored by the Sun. From It has proceeded the ancient wisdom.( 4:18 svetasvatara upanishad)

There is an interesting story in kenopanishad. Even though it did not use the word Rudra, Siva etc it indirectly showed Shiva as Brahman.
chapter 3.
1 Brahman, according to the story, obtained a victory for the gods; and by that victory of Brahman the gods became elated. They said to themselves: "Verily, this victory is ours; verily, this glory is ours only."

2 Brahman, to be sure, understood it all and appeared before them. But they did not know who that adorable Spirit was.

3—6 They said to Agni (Fire): "O Agni! Find out who this great Spirit is." "Yes," he said and hastened to It. Brahman asked him: "Who are you?" He replied: "I am known as Agni; I am also called Jataveda." Brahman said: "What power is in you, who are so well known?" Fire replied: "I can burn all— whatever there is on earth." Brahman put a straw before him and said: "Burn this." He rushed toward it with all his ardour but could not burn it. Then he returned from the Spirit and said to the gods: "I could not find out who this Spirit is,"

7—10 Then they said to Vayu (Air): "O Vayu! Find out who this great Spirit is." "Yes," he said and hastened to It. Brahman asked him: "Who are you?" He replied "I am known as Vayu; I am also called Matarisva." Brahman said: "What power is in you, who are so well known?" Vayu replied: "I can carry off all— whatever there is on earth." Brahman put a straw before him and said: "Carry this." He rushed toward it with all his ardour but could not move it. Then he returned from the Spirit and said to the gods: "I could not find out who this Spirit is,"

11—12 Then the gods said to Indra: "O Maghavan! Find out who this great Spirit is." "Yes," he said and hastened to It. But the Spirit disappeared from him. Then Indra beheld in that very region of the sky a Woman highly adorned. She was Uma, the daughter of the Himalayas. He approached Her and said: "Who is this great Spirit?"
chap 4
1 She replied: "It is, indeed, Brahman. Through the victory of Brahman alone have you attained glory." After that Indra understood that It was Brahman.

2 Since they approached very near Brahman and were the first to know that It was Brahman, these devas, namely, Agni, Vayu and Indra, excelled the other gods.

3 Since Indra approached Brahman nearest and since he was the first to know that It was Brahman, Indra excelled the other gods.

SMRITHI STORY ( Siva puran story )

During the time when ocean was being churned first of all poison appeared from it. The deities were very terrified to see the tremendous heat it generated. They went to lord Shiva and requested to protect them from the heat of that poison. Lord Shiva drank all the poison but did not let it pass down his throat.

After the poison, Nectar appeared from the ocean, which was drunk by the deities. The demons too wanted to drink the nectar, so a tremendous battle ensued between them and the deities. The deities became victorious in this battle because they had become immortal due to the effect of the Nectar. This victory made the deities very arrogant.

Lord Shiva was very concerned about their arrogant nature. He went to them in the guise of a Yaksha. He asked as to what was it that had made them so arrogant. The deities replied that their arrogance stemmed from victory over the demons. Lord Shiva who was disguised as Yaksha replied- “Your pride is based on false notion, because you did not achieve victory due to somebody's grace and blessing.”

The deities disagreed with him. Lord Shiva then asked them to cut the grass if they considered themselves so mighty. He then kept a grass leaf in front of them. Each of the deities tried to cut that grass with their respective weapons but remained unsuccessful in their attempts. They were all amazed. Suddenly a heavenly voice was heard which said that the Yaksha was none other than Lord Shiva himself. The deities realized their mistakes. They apologized to lord Shiva. After vanquishing the false pride of the deities lord Shiva disappeared.

As smrithi texts support sruthi we can take this story as a valid one. Hence Supreme Brahman ( in disguise of yaksha) Of Kenopanishad is SIVA only. )

If you want to quote more you can quote from this type 2 upanishads. Better, give priority to type 1 upanishads . If you still want to quote more, Do it from the following mentioned Upanishads.
Rudra hridhaya Upanishad
Kaivalya Upanishad
Varaha Upanishad
Adharva siras Upanishad
Atharva shika Upanishad

“The pranava (the sound of Om) makes all the souls to bow before it. It is the one and only one which has to be meditated upon as the four Vedas and the birth place of all devas. One who meditates like that goes away from all sorrows and fears and gets the power to protect all others who approach him. It is because of this meditation only that Lord Vishnu who is spread every where, wins over all others. It is because Lord Brahma controlled all his organs and meditated upon it, he attained the position of the creator. Even Lord Vishnu , parks his mind in the sound (Om) of the place of Paramathma (ultimate soul) and meditates upon Eeshana, who is most proper to be worshipped. All this is only proper in case of Eeshana” (2.1 Atharva shika upanishad )

Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra and Indra are creating all beings, all organs and all karanas. They are also capable of controlling them. But Lord Shiva exists in between them like sky and is permanently stable. ( 2.2 Atharva shika upanishad )

It is advised that the five gods Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Ishwara and Shiva should be worshipped in the form of pranava [Aa+Uu+Ma+sound+Bindu(full stop)]. ( 2.3 Atharva shika upanishad )

This god is the one who pervades in all directions. He is the one who came earlier than every thing. He is the one who is in the womb. He is the one who is in all the creatures which have come out till now and all those who are going to be created in future. He is also the one who sees the inside but the one who has a face which looks outside. (5.1 Atharva siras upanishad )

Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them. (5.2 atharva siras upanishad )

For the sake of this world, this deathless primeval being, catches hold of this world which is created by Prajapathi and which is minute and peaceful, without touching it and attracts its shape of things by shape, peacefulness by peace, minuteness by minuteness and airy nature by its airy nature and swallows it. Salutations and salutations to that great swallower.( 3-4 Atharva siras Upanishad )

He converts fire, air, water, earth, ether and everything that exists here in to ash. He who sees this and mentally realizes it and observes the “penance to Pasupathi (Lord of all beings)” and who coats ash all over his body with this ash attains the state of Brahman. By worshipping “Pasupathi (lord of all beings)” like this, the ties of bondage of all beings get cut and they attain salvation.( 5.4 Atharva siras )

Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya). (7 kaivalya upanishad)

He alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal; knowing Him, one transcends death; there is no other way to freedom.( 9 kaivalya Upanishad)

Seeing the Atman in all beings, and all beings in the Atman, one attains the highest Brahman – not by any other means (10 kaivalya upanishad )

sivo guruh sivo vedah siva devah sivah prabhuh
sivo'smyaham sivah sarvam sivadanyanna kimcana
( iv-32 Varaha upanishad)

Shiva alone is Guru; Shiva alone is Vedas;
Shiva alone is Lord; Shiva alone is I;
Shiva alone is All. There is none other than Shiva

All those devas who are all under stupor by the illusion of Maheswara would not understand properly that Mahadeva who is the teacher of the universe, is the cause of all causes. His shape does not appear before the eye. This world is shining because of that Parathpara Purusha in whom the world exists. It merges in him. That Ishana aspect is the Para Brahman which is the upper boundary of peace. The knowledge that the Para Brhaman is oneself and the rise of Sathyo Jatam (birth of truth) is Para Brahman (6 pancha brahmaopanishad )”

Rudra is the embodiment of all Devas. All devas are merely different manifestations of Sri Rudra Himself. On the right side of Rudra, there is the sun, then the four-headed Brahma, and then three Agnis (fires). On the left side, there exist Sri Umadevi, and also Vishnu and Soma (moon) (Rudra hridhaya upanishad )

Uma Herself is the form of Vishnu. Vishnu Himself is the form of the moon. Therefore, those who worship Lord Vishnu, worship Siva Himself. And those who worship Siva, worship Lord Vishnu. Those who envy and hate Sri Rudra, are actually hating Sri Vishnu. Those who decry Lord Siva, decry Vishnu Himself. (Rudra hridhaya upanishad )

Rudra is the generator of the seed. Vishnu is the embryo of the seed. Siva Himself is Brahma and Brahma Himself is Agni. Rudra is full of Brahma and Vishnu. The whole world is full of Agni and Soma. The masculine gender is Lord Siva. The feminine gender is Sri Bhavani Devi. All the mobile and immobile creation of this universe, is filled up with Uma and Rudra. The Vyakta is Sri Uma, and the Avyakta is Lord Siva. ( Rudra hridaya upanishad )

The effect is Vishnu. The action is Brahma. The cause is Siva. For the benefit of the worlds. Rudra has taken these three forms. ( Rudra hridaya upanishad)

(I bow) to Shiva of the form of Vishnu and Vishnu who is Shiva; Vishnu is Shiva’s heart and Shiva, Vishnu’s. Just as Vishnu is full of Shiva, so is Shiva full of Vishnu. As I see no difference, I am well all my life. (8-9. skanda upanishad )

Rudra is man. Uma is woman. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Brahma. Uma is Sarasvati. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Vishnu. Uma is Lakshmi. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Sun. Uma is shadow. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is moon. Uma is star. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is day. Uma is night. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Yajna. Uma is Vedi. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Agni, Uma is Svaha. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Veda. Uma is Sastra. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is tree. Uma is creeper. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is scent. Uma is flower. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is meaning. Uma is word. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Linga. Uma is Pitha. Prostrations to Him and Her ( Rudra hridaya upanishad )

Type 3

Sometimes it becomes necessary to quote some weird statements inorder to make those dumb hare krsnas mouth shut.
But I advice you to restrain yourself from quoting these verses. Hare krsnas may sometimes try to quote some verses from vaishnava Upanishads like Gopala Tappani Upanishad etc. In such cases don’t accept it. Tell them clearly that if they quote from vaishnava upanishads you would go for shaiva Upanishads like Sharaba Upanishad.

i am saluting that primeval God who is the Lord, who is the best, who is the father of the world, who is the greatest among gods, who has created Brahma, who gave all Vedas to Brahma in the beginning, who is the father of Vishnu and other devas, who merits praise, and who at the time of deluge destroys the world. He is the only one who is greater than every body, who is the best and who rules over others. (1-2 sarabha upanishad )

That very strong Maheswara took the horrifying form of Sarabha and killed Narasimha who was destroying the world. (Sarabha is the avatar of Shiva which is a combination of eagle, lion and man.) 3

That god with his sharp claws tore, Vishnu who took the form of Narasimha. He who was wearing the hide became Veerabhadra. 4

Salutations to that Rudra whose feet were worshipped by the flower of Vishnu’s eyes and who being pleased gave him the holy wheel (Chakra).( 7 sharaba upanishad)

*****Sarvam Sri SAmbaSadAsiva CharaNArpaNamastu*******

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